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Chapter 5 Tissues. Intercellular Connections . Individual cells connect to form tissues 3 ways: Tight junctions- prevents permeability of ions through junction. Desmosome- adhesion between cells in spots. Allows from some permeability.

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intercellular connections
Intercellular Connections
  • Individual cells connect to form tissues 3 ways:
    • Tight junctions- prevents permeability of ions through junction.
    • Desmosome- adhesion between cells in spots. Allows from some permeability.
    • Gap junctions- cytoplasms of adjacent cells are connected through transport proteins.
      • Ions can pass freely through cells.
tissue types
Tissue Types

A tissue is a group of cells with a common structure & function

The human body is composed of four main tissue types:

  • 1. Epithelial
  • 2. Connective
  • 3. Muscle
  • 4. Nerve
epithelial tissue
Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

  • Always has a free (apical) surface exposed to outside or open space.
  • Lacks blood vessels
  • Readily divide and replicate
  • Has a basement membrane to anchor underlying tissue
    • Between epithelial and connective tissue
  • Covers body surfaces
  • Makes up glands
  • Protects
  • Absorbs
  • Secretes
  • Excretes
classified by shape
Classified by Shape
  • Squamous – flattened cells
  • Cuboidal – cube-shaped
  • Columnar – tall, column-shaped
classified by shape1
Classified by Shape

May occur in layers:

  • Simple – 1 layer of cells
  • Stratified – 2 or more layers
  • Pseudostratified – appears to be layered, but is not
  • Example – simple cuboidal
  • Example – stratified columnar

Simple Squamous- Thin, flattened cells. Allow for diffusion and filtration. Line air sacs of lungs and walls of capillaries.


Simple cuboidal-single layer of cube shaped cells. Lines follicles of thyroid gland, kidneys and ducts of certain glands. Used for secretion and absorption


Simple columnar- single layer of elongated cells. Can contain cilia, used for protection and absorption in digestive tract. Can contain goblet cells.


Stratified squamous-Layers of squamous cells. Make up epidermis and line cavities exposed to external environment. Outer layer die and accumulate keratin.


Stratified columnar- Several layers of columnar cells overlying cuboidal cells near the basement membrane. Found in male reprod. System and pharynx


Pseudostratified ciliated columnar- Appear stratified but are not. Often contain cilia and goblet cells which secrete mucus. Line respiratory passages.

Pseudostratified ciliated columnarw/goblet cells- Line Respiratory passages to trap unwanted particles

Transitional tissue- Changes in response to change in tension (stretching). Line urinary bladder and urethra. Larger cells at surface, smaller cells deeper.

glandular epithelium
Glandular Epithelium
  • Specialized to secrete substances
  • Usually glands are lined w/cuboidal or columnar epithelium
  • Those that secrete substances into ducts that open onto a surface are exocrine glands (salivary, oil glands, etc.)
  • Those that secrete into tissues or bloodare endocrine glands (pituitary)
classifying glands by structure
Classifying Glands by Structure
  • Simple- does not branch off before reaching secretory portion
  • Compound- duct that does branch before secretory portion.
classifying glands by type of secretions
Classifying Glands by Type of Secretions

3 types:

  • Small portions of cells
  • in secretions
  • No loss of cytoplasm Ex. – mammary glands

in secretions

  • Ex. – pancreas
classifying by secretions
Classifying by Secretions
  • Secretions w/entire cells filled w/secretory

products; ex. – sebaceous (oil) glands

  • 1. connects
  • 2. supports
  • 3. protects
  • 4. provides framework
  • 5. fills spaces
  • 6. stores fat
  • 7. produces blood cells
  • 8. protects against infection
  • 9. transports nutrients
  • 10.helps repair damaged tissue
  • 1. Consists of cells in a matrix (intercellular material)
  • 2. Cells some distance apart
  • 3. Most can divide
  • 4. Good blood supply
types of fibers
Types of Fibers:
  • collagenous – composed of collagen (protein); have great tensile strength; slightly




tendons &


types of fibers continued
Types of Fibers - continued
  • elastic – composed of elastin (protein); very elastic but weaker; compose vocal cords & air passages of lungs
types of fibers continued1
Types of Fibers - continued
  • Reticular – composed of very fine collagenous


  • Form



types of cells
Types of Cells

1. Fixed cells – stay in one place & have stable numbers; 2 types:

  • fibroblasts – large & star-shaped; most prevalent
types of cells continued
Types of Cells - continued
  • mast cells – may release heparin (for blood clotting) &

histamines (promotes

allergic reactions &


usually located near

blood vessel walls

types of cells continued1
Types of Cells - continued

2. Wandering cells –

  • macrophages –

travel through

body; numbers

change in

response to



(Purple cells – macrophages,

Green cells – T-lymphocytes)


Areolar tissue-binds the skin to underlying organs and under epithelium to provide bloodflow. Binds and protects. A- fibroblast, B-collagen, C- elastin

Adipose tissue- connective tissue composed of fats, cushion joints and provide insulation. A- nuclei, B- fat globules

Regular dense connective- strong fibers bind body parts together. Found in ligaments and tendons. Poor blood supply so slow healing. A- fibroblasts. B- collagen and elastin


Hyaline cartilage- Most common, found on ends of bones, nose cavity and supporting rings of resp. system. A- chondrocytes, B- Matrix (fine collagen fibers), C- Lacunae


Fibrocartilage- tough tissue containing collagenous fibers. Shock absorbers between vertebrae and pubic girdle. A- Chondrocyte, B- Collagen fibers

Elastic cartilage- flexible cartilage make up ears and larynx. Used for flexible support. A- chondrocytes, B- elastin, C- Lacunae
elastic connective allows for stretching found in attachments between vertebrae a elastic fibers
Elastic connective- allows for stretching, found in attachments between vertebrae. A- elastic fibers
Bone- A- central canal (contains blood vessels) B- Canaliculi- minute tubes allow for movement between cells.
muscle tissue
Muscle Tissue

3 types:

  • Skeletal- Attached to bone and controlled by conscious effort (Voluntary).
    • Used for movement
    • Striated
    • Long and thin with multiple nuclei
muscle tissue cont
Muscle Tissue Cont.
  • Smooth- lacks striations found in skeletal, used for involuntary movements
    • Ex- move food through digestive tract
  • Cardiac- striated muscle found only in the heart
    • At intercellular junction contain intercalated discs.
      • Allows for heart to contract as one unit
nervous tissue
Nervous Tissue
  • Found in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
  • Cells called neurons
    • Responsible for transmitting nervous impulses to muscles and glands.
  • Also include neuroglia cells (support cells)
    • Support the function of the neurons