Elemental distributions in the universe and the solid earth
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Elemental Distributions in the Universe and the Solid Earth. GLY 4241 - Lecture 2 Fall, 2014. Elemental Abundance Expression. Number of atoms per million atoms Weight percent Volume percent Relative to abundance of silicon. Abundance versus Atomic Number. Light Element Abundance.

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Elemental abundance expression
Elemental Abundance Expression

  • Number of atoms per million atoms

  • Weight percent

  • Volume percent

  • Relative to abundance of silicon




Oddo harkins rule
Oddo-Harkins Rule

  • For elements heavier than H, the Oddo-Harkins rule holds that elements with an even atomic number (such as carbon) are more common than elements with an odd atomic number (such as nitrogen)

  • The effect was first reported by Giuseppe Oddo in 1914 and William Draper Harkins in 1917

  • Elements with odd atomic numbers have one unpaired proton

  • During nucleosynthesis, these elements are more likely to capture another proton, thus increasing their atomic number

  • In elements with even atomic numbers, protons are paired, with each member of the pair offsetting the spin of the other, enhancing stability


Odd odd scarcity
Odd-Odd Scarcity

  • Li6 7.42 % Li7 92.58%

  • B10 19.80 % B11 80.20%

  • K39 93.20 % K40 0.012% K41 6.73%

  • Results from the Oddo-Harkins Rule


Cosmic abundances
Cosmic Abundances

Cosmic Abundances Normalized to Si = 106




Crustal abundances in the earth
Crustal Abundances in the Earth

Approximate percentage by weight


Continental versus total crust
Continental versus Total Crust

  • After Mason and Moore, 1982, p.44



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