Critical factors promoting social interaction in the classroom • In order to motivate students' participation, the teacher poses just-in-time appropriate and meaningful open problems. This willmotivate them to inquire, and enhance the need of collaboration by assessment and feedback. • The teacher provides coaching to the student in order to focus her attention to the important issues • Students externalize internal thinking for knowledge sharing by creating and exchanging artifacts representing their ideas, for example during reflection • Construction mutual and collaborative understanding: the interlocutors' intention changes constantly before, during, and after the process of interaction. This affects how she expresses thinking and responds to the others (peer-review). M. Anton 1999 - The Discourse of a Leamer-Centered Classroom
System Architecture View groups’ shared Working area Teacher Group 1 Send problems (re)configure groups Assesment Work together Group 2 Group 3
Group configuration Teacher’s module, in Group setup mode. Dragging user Nelson to group 2. Users are displayed automatically when discovered The groups are defined by the teacher. The icon will show allways What is actually on the groups’ shared workspaces
Problem creation writing the problem definition and the answers and delimiting the elements by closing them in rectangles For defining problems with Alternatives problem parts are Dragged into the respective areas
Synchronized work Screenshots of two students’ PDAs jointly working in the same group work solving different part of a problem
Sending the answers The figure in the right shows the students must chose an answer by clicking on the “Share answer with group” button. After choosing an answer, the button turns into and agreement indicator (center). Here, the button shows the student’s answer coincides with one student but differs from two other. Once all members agree on the answer, it turns into the “Submit answer” button (right),
Assesment The teacher’ view in the “show results” mode. Group 1 has answered 2 problems right (one open and the other with alternatives) Group 2 has answered 2 problems with alternatives, one wrong one right and the other with alternatives Group 3 answered 3 problems 2 with alternatives (right) one open (wrong). Cheking of solutions in open problems is done “by hand”
First tests • During two weeks, 24 students and two different teachers from a pre-graduate university course • activity aimed at exercising concepts learnt during software development course • All type of problems where used during the experience as well as the group reconfiguration functionality. • They used the system twice a week in sessions of one and a half hour each. all learning activities were tried. • Teacher used a Tabled PC and the students used PDAs.
A Platform for Motivating Collaborative Learning Using Participatory Simulation Applications
Aims, Goals Design a conceptual framework For developing applications of participatory simulations Motivating collaborative learning Explore the role of handhelds supporting Participatory Simulations Exchange data in ad-hoc mobile environment Each handheld/user acting as an agent in participatory simulation Actively learning agent roles and outcomes How good supports participatory simulation the learning process ? Which scenarios are the best.
Participatory simulations Role-playing activity oriented towards learning complex and dynamic systems Mapping real world problems to simulated context and behaviors Knowledge and patterns emerge from local interactions among users Highly effective in large groups Simple to set up and interact with Simple decision process: Analyze information, exchange information, make decisions and see the outcomes It allows to relate actions and their consequences Highly motivating even in large groups Participation and collaboration increase the understanding of the simulated reality and problem-solving abilities Mobility has positive effects in engagement Can be integrated in a whole classroom learning by doing
Designing (creating) roles &Items Example: A Trust building rules learning scenario
a b Designing Items Example: Diseases, symptoms and treatments
Motivation • Integration of classroom learning and learning “in the wild” • Lack of common data platform to exchange data • Different interaction rules in each application
PDAs provide for a unique interface and a seamless transition between the learning environments of the classroom, outside “in the wild,” and at home.
McSketcher • overview of different types of documents (instructions, material and personal work) that may be shared with other participants
McSketcher - interaction • The user drags one node (basement) to a student and another one to the teacher
Research Goals Develop a mobile collaborative Knowledge Management (KM) System Ad-hoc wirelessly interconnected Tablet-PC and PDAs Provide mechanisms to support Knowledge Management processes: creation, validation, presentation, review and distribution, and application Promote face-to-face interactions among persons any time and at any place Provide an easy interface design based on gesturing and sketching metaphors using the devices’ touch-screen feature
support different processes of KM at the moment that is needed while the users are on the move use advanced information visualization techniques for displaying and navigating structures in complex information spaces Support face-to-face communication by interfaces that use gestures and sketching Organize knowledge using two-dimensional concept maps Contextualize the situation by proximity: IRDA functionalities embedded in mobile devices may be used to detect close proximity between 2 users wishing to exchange information. Design Principles of Mobile KM System
Description of the mobile KM System Creating nodes
Description of the mobile KM System Writing a label for a link
Description of the mobile KM System exchange of data by proximity with IRDA
Description of the mobile KM System The tree view
Description of the mobile KM System Contrasting coupled nodes. Green nodes belong to one user and blue ones to another. The coupled nodes are shown in the middle, one over the other. Doing a circle gesture over the coupled node will change the foreground-background order of the nodes view.
Various aspects of KM processes that can be operationalized and mediated through Tablet PCs and/or wirelessly interconnected PDAs The mobile KMS will be expected to: integrate with knowledge repository-type stationary KM Systems and search tools for retrieving stored knowledge objects incorporate solutions to certain human factors that tend to hamper KM processes (poor quality information, personal preferences, fear of revealing own secrets, etc.) introduce incentives that encourage users to employ the processes in a satisfactory manner. Conclusions