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Radiation Shielding for a Lunar Base

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    1. Radiation Shielding for a Lunar Base Jared Bell Dustin Lail Chris Martin Paul Nguyen PP

    2. Overview Objective Radiation Types Alternatives and Design Requirements Alternative Selection Testing and Evaluation Plan Simulation Results and Construction Plan Economic Analysis Conclusion PP

    3. Objective To design the outer structure and material components of a lunar base to reduce radiation exposure to an annual dosage of 50 rems or less for astronauts occupying the moon for up to six months. DD

    4. Types of Radiation Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) composed of protons, electrons and heavy ions solar flares Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) composed of protons, electrons, and atomic nuclei Radioactive Decay secondary and tertiary radiation emitted from the Moons surface CC

    5. Shielding Alternatives Possible Alternatives Aluminum currently in use by NASA Liquid Hydrogen high electron density, excels at radiation protection Lithium Hydride- lightweight compound used in nuclear reactors as radiation barrier Regolith- readily available on Moons surface RXF1- structural polyethylene material JJ

    6. User Requirements Radiation Reduction (50%) Impact Resistance (25%) Feasibility (15%) Weight (10%) PP

    7. DD

    8. MMOD Protection Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) Density: 4.0 g/cm3 Boron Carbide (B4C) Density: 2.52 g/cm3 Silicon Carbide (SiC) Density: 3.21 g/cm3 Radiation Shielding/ Micro-meteoroid (MMOD) Protection 68% by volume UHMW polyethylene fibers 32% by volume polyethylene matrix Structural/ Radiation Shielding 30-42% by volume UHMW polyethylene fibers (CH2) 18-30% Graphite Fibers (C) 28-52% by volume epoxy resin matrix (C37H42N4O6S) JJ

    9. Regolith Will provide additional radiation shielding and impact resistance (50cm for 20km/s impact) Readily available on the lunar surface Transportation of machines to process is required CC

    10. Evaluation and Testing Plans Radiation Simulations OLTARIS 81 to determine optimal composition of RXF1. 9 to determine the thickness of regolith Construction Schedule Primavera 6 Determine Critical Path and Optimal Construction Timeline PP

    11. Simulation Results DustinDustin

    12. Simulation Results JaredJared

    13. Construction Plan Assembled using Self Erector Crane 8 Hours System will be used to unload the base to desired location ChrisChris

    14. Lunar Construction Phase I: Excavation of Regolith 2.58 Work Days Astronauts will operate 2 Moonrakers to pile regolith 217,493.33 KG needed for 12 in. of regolith PP

    15. Lunar Construction Phase II: Regolith Placement 2.40 Work Days Grapple arm will be attached to the LSEC LSEC will scoop the regolith and place it on top of the module Maximum load: 300 kg (on moon) CC

    16. Construction Schedule JaredJared

    17. Economic Analysis Launch costs are more significant than habitat costs According to NASA $104 billion leading up to first moon landing in 2020 According to Government Accountability Office $230 billion for lunar program through 2025 JaredJared

    18. Conclusion Use Composition 1-07AOR Aluminum Oxide Outer Layer 42% Polyethylene 18% Graphite 40% Epoxy Aluminum Inner Layer 12 inches of Regolith 5.40 Work Day Construction Schedule 2.58 Regolith Processing 2.40 Regolith Placement 0.42 Other DustinDustin

    19. Questions CC

    20. References Eckart, Peter. The Lunar Base Handbook. Second ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2006. Print. "RXF1 Specs." Message to Raj Kaul. 1 Nov. 2010. E-mail. Britt, Robert R. "Perfect Spot Found for Moon Base." SPACE.com. 13 Apr. 2005. Web. <http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/050413_moon_perfect.html>. Seybold, Calina C. "Characteristics of the Lunar Environment." Aug. 1995. Web. 13 Oct. 2010. <http://www.tsgc.utexas.edu/tadp/1995/spects/environment.html>. Lindsey, Nancy J. "Lunar Station Protection: Lunar Regolith Shielding." Web. <http://www.rcktmom.com/njlworks/LunarRegolithPprenvi2.html>.

    21. References United States. NASA. Shielding Strategies for Human Space Exploration. Ed. J.W. Wilson, J. Miller, F.A. Cucinotta, and A. Konradi. NASA Conference Publication, 1997. Print. Adams, J.H., T.A. Parnell, D.H. Hathaway, J.C. Gregory, and R.N. Grugel. United States. Revolutionary Concepts of Radiation Shielding for Human. Huntsville: The University of Alabama in Huntsville, 2005. (Adams, Parnell, Hathaway, Gregory, and Grugel) Nealy, John E., John W. Wilson, and Larence W. Townsend. United States. Solar-Flare Shielding With Regolith at a Lunar-Base Site. Hampton, VA: 1988. Print. Nealy, John E., and Lisa C. Simonson. United States. Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars. Washington D.C.: 1991. Print.

    22. References "Lunar Self-Erector Crane." Cranes. 2007. Web. <http://www.cranestodaymagazine.com/story.asp?storycode=2050280>. Schrunk, David, Burton Sharpe, Bonnie Cooper, and Madhu Thangavelu. The Moon: Resources, Future Development, and Settlement. 2nd ed. Chichester, UK: Praxis, 2008. Print. Kaul, Raj K., Abdulnasser Fakhri Barghouty, Benjamin G. Penn, and Anthony B. Hulcher. Multi-Functional Layered Structure Having Structural and Radiation Shielding Attributes. The United States of America as Represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, assignee. Patent US 7,855,157 B1. 21 Dec. 2010. Print. Shaver, Colleen, and Paul Ventimiglia. "Moonraker: Winner of NASA's Regolith Excavation Challenge." Botmag. Web. 2010. <http://find.botmag.com/10001>.

    23. Industrial Engineer Concerned with the development, improvement, implementation, and evaluation of [integrated systems] of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles and methods of [engineering design] to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or process.