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Administrative Confirm class roster Confirm meeting time Review requirements Attendance Participation Homework Presentations Discuss course objectives/approach Lecture/discussion Chapter 1 Quality Basics The Customer. Week 3 Assignments Homework - Ch 1 - 9 Read - Ch 1 Presentations:

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Confirm class roster

Confirm meeting time

Review requirements





Discuss course objectives/approach


Chapter 1 Quality Basics

The Customer

Week 3 Assignments

Homework - Ch 1 - 9

Read - Ch 1


“Organizing for Quality”

MEM 650 Agenda - Week 1

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Quality Basics

Chapter One

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Defining Quality

  • ASQ - “quality is a subjective term for which each person has his or her own definition”

  • What’s your definition?

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Defining Quality

  • In technical usage, quality can have two meanings:

    • the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs, and

    • a product or service free of deficiencies

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Defining Quality - “Gurus”

  • Deming - “non-faulty systems”

    • Out of the Crisis

  • Juran - “fitness for use”

    • Quality Control Handbook

  • Crosby - “conformance to requirements”

    • Quality is Free

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Defining Quality- Different Views

  • Customer’s view (more subjective)

    • the quality of the design (look, feel, function)

    • product does what’s intended and lasts

  • Producer’s view

    • conformance to requirements (Crosby)

    • costs of quality (prevention, scrap, warranty)

    • increasing conformance raises profits

  • Government’s view

    • products should be safe

    • not harmful to environment

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Stout’s View

Quality =



MEM 650 Quality Control

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Manufacturing dimensions








Perceived quality

Service dimensions






Value-based Approach

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Our Textbook Definition

  • Armand Feigenbaum -

    • author: Total Quality Control (1961)

    • “quality is a customer determination based on the customer’s actual experience with the product or service, measured against his or her requirements - stated or unstated, conscious or merely sensed, technically operational or entirely subjective - and always representing a moving target in a competitive market.”

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Shift to Quality





Period of

change from

quantity to


Focus on


Focus on


Pre-World War II



MEM 650 Quality Control

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History of Quality Paradigms

  • Customer-craft quality paradigm:

    • – design and build each product for a particular customer.

    • – producer knows the customer directly.

  • Mass production and inspection quality paradigm:

    • focus on designing and building products for mass consumption.

    • larger volumes will reduce costs and increases profits.

    • push products on the customer (limit choices).

    • quality is maintained by inspecting and detecting bad products.

  • TQM or “Customer Driven Quality” paradigm:

    • potential customers determine what to design and build.

    • higher quality will be obtained by preventing problems

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Need for a New Strategy

  • Foreign markets have grown

    • Import barriers and protection are not the answer.

  • Consumers are offered more choices

    • They have become more discriminating.

  • Consumers are more sophisticated

    • They demand new and better products.

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Why Quality Improvement?

  • Global Competition

    • Economic and political boundaries are slowly vanishing

    • The 1950’s slogan “Built by Americans for Americans” is very far from reality in the 2000’s.

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Why Quality Improvement?

  • “On the stroke of midnight on December 31, 1992, the United States will become the second-largest economy in the world for the first time in a century”.

    • Quote from a 1990 Xerox quality conference.

  • More than corporate profits are at risk; the challenge is to the American standard of living.

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Why Quality Improvement?

  • It pays

    • Less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and materials

    • In United States today, 15 to 20% of the production costs are incurred in finding and correcting mistakes.

MEM 650 Quality Control

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How Do Organizations Compete?

  • Most common competitive measures:

    • Quality (both real and perceived)

    • Cost

    • Delivery (lead time and accuracy)

  • Other measures

    • safety,

    • employee morale,

    • product development (time-to-market, innovative products)

MEM 650 Quality Control

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Passive / Reactive

Setting acceptable quality levels

Inspecting to measure compliance

Proactive / Preventive

Design quality in products and processes

Identify sources of variation (processes and materials)

Monitor process performance

Contrasting Approaches

MEM 650 Quality Control

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The Quality Hierarchy

Incorporates QA/QC activities

into company-wide system aimed

at satisfying the customer

Total Quality




Actions to insure products or

services conform to company


Quality Assurance

Operational techniques to make

inspection more efficient and to

reduce the costs of quality.

Quality Control




Inspect products

MEM 650 Quality Control