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Content Management & Portal Management. Christine Apikul. Module 1 Objectives. Provide an overview of the global trends in e-governance Discuss the status of e-governance in the Arab region and in Iraq

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module 1 objectives
Module 1 Objectives
  • Provide an overview of the global trends in e-governance
  • Discuss the status of e-governance in the Arab region and in Iraq
  • Define key terminologies including content, content management, portal and portal management
  • Describe the technological trends affecting content management and portal management
  • Highlight the strategic directions and challenges in content management and portal management
status of e governance
Status of e-Governance
  • According to the United Nations e-Government Survey 2012, progress in online service delivery continues in most countries
  • Many countries have an e-governance strategy in place
  • Most countries have established a national e-governance portal
un e gov survey indices
UN e-Gov Survey Indices
  • Online services – public websites and services at different levels of maturity
  • Telecommunication – computers, Internet users, phone lines, mobile/fixed subscriptions
  • Human capital – adult literacy rate, gross education enrolment
  • e-Participation – information sharing, consultation, decision-making
barriers and challenges
Barriers and Challenges
  • Low levels of e-governance uptake even in developed countries
  • The digital divide further impedes the uptake of e-governance
  • Internal challenges include inefficient and ineffective government processes and mindsets, and political regulatory and budgetary constraints
  • Citizens are increasingly expecting government to go beyond online service delivery, moving from what the technological developments can do, to what citizens want
the digital divide
The Digital Divide

The digital divide separates people in several ways:

  • It can mean separation between those who have access to technology versus those who do not
  • It separates those who have access to information versus those who do not
  • It creates a separation between those who are able to successfully use ICTs versus those who are not able to
global e governance trends
Global e-Governance Trends
  • Countries are moving to an integrated unified whole-of-government model
  • Countries are paying closer attention to multichannel service delivery
  • Countries are engaging more closely with citizens
whole of government model
Whole-of-government Model
  • From silos to an integrated approach
  • Driven by various societal forces such as:
  • Growing complexity of problems that call for collaborative responses
  • Increased demand from citizens for more personalized and accessible public services
  • Opportunities presented by the Internet to transform
whole of government model1
Whole-of-government Model
  • The product of this model is an integrated one-stop portal
  • Two approaches:
  • One national integrated portal e.g. Australia, Bahrain, Denmark, Israel, NZ, Norway, Qatar, Republic of Korea, UAE, USA
  • More than one portal, with thematic and/or functional services integrated in a manner that finds e-information separate from e-services or e-participation. e.g. Most countries from the European Union
multichannel service delivery
Multichannel Service Delivery
  • The provision of public services by various means in an integrated and coordinated way so that users receive consistent information and services across channels
  • Driven by:
  • Diverse needs and demands of citizens for services
  • Reach out to as many people as possible, no matter how poor, illiterate or isolated
multichannel service delivery1
Multichannel Service Delivery
  • Mix of channels, complemented by human interaction and networks
  • Online – web portal, website, email, online chat
  • Mobile devices – mobile web, mobile application, SMS, cell broadcasting
  • Telephone and fax
  • Contact centre - can handle voice, Internet and written channels (fax and regular mail)
  • Community service centres or telecentres or kiosks
  • Government counters
citizen centric why
Citizen Centric – Why?
  • Governments recognize that the benefits of e-governance services are very much determined by the number and type of users of these services, and the frequency of their use
  • Citizens uptake of e-governance services generally low, e.g. 32% in EU countries
  • A shift from what services governments can provide to what citizens really need
  • The focus on citizen-centric portal design, conduct of customer survey satisfaction and involvement of citizens in consultations and decision-making processes are evidence of this trend
degree of citizen engagement
Degree of Citizen Engagement
  • The United Nations e-Government Survey measures the degree of e-participation against three benchmarks:
  • Does the national government publish information on items under consideration? (e-information)
  • Are there ways for the public to engage in consultations with policy makers, government officials and one another? (e-consultation)
  • Can citizens directly influence decisions, for example by voting online or using a mobile telephone? (e-decision-making)
right to information
Right to Information
  • Provide the right to access official documents and other information held by government bodies, subject to exemptions for certain sensitive information
  • Recognized as a fundamental human right
  • Linked to accountability and good governance
open data
Open Data
  • Governments opening previously “locked-up” data sets
  • Providing raw data to their citizens
  • Citizens using raw data to produce mashups
co produced map using open data after 2010 haiti earthquake source http haiti openstreetmap nl
Co-produced Map using Open Dataafter 2010 Haiti Earthquake(Source:
  • What do you think are the implications of these trends on content management and portal management?

e-Government Journey(Source: DiMaio, A and Kost, J, Hype Cycle Shows E-Government Overcoming Disillusionment, Gartner, 17 March 2004 in infoDev/World Bank, e-Government Primer, Washington, DC, 2009)

bahrain http www bahrain bh
Bahrain (
  • e-Government Authority established in 2007 to coordinate and execute e-government initiatives
  • Work teams were created in all government ministries and entities to accelerate the transformation towards e-services
  • Delivers e-services through multiple channels: e-government portal, mobile portal, national contact centre (a 24/7 call centre), and e-services centres and kiosks
  • A customer charter ensures customer centricity of service delivery through the development of well-defined service levels and customer grievance redressal systems
  • By the end of 2010, the customer satisfaction index reached 92% among individuals, 93% businesses, and 70% government employees
qatar http portal www gov qa
Qatar (

A governance model was established that included:

  • Sponsor Group Steering Committee
  • Program Management Committee Project Steering Committee
  • Project Delivery Teams User Committees

Extensive new ICT infrastructure has been constructed to support the full integration of government service They include:

  • Government Network Government Data Centre
  • Government Contact Center Govt Resources Planning
  • Payment Platform Public Key Infrastructure
  • Information Security Governance
saudi arabia http www saudi gov sa
Saudi Arabia (
  • Some government agencies have been successful in implementing e-services, delivering over 50% of their e-services as full transactional services
  • eDashboard portal verifies the identity of the citizen and serves as a single sign-on portal where citizens can access all services provided
  • The Open Data Initiative makes information publicly available, encouraging e-participation
dubai united arab emirates http www dubai ae
Dubai, United Arab Emirates (

Shared Services approach

    • Centrally focused on building common parts needed by all offices (e.g., payment, customer support, content management system, hosting, etc.)
    • Government departments were given the freedom to creatively build their own e-services
  • Resulted in standardization, best practices sharing, cost savings and reduced time to market
  • Relieves departments from the efforts and cost of establishing own electronic presence, including the infrastructure and expertise that other departments can utilize
e governance in iraq http www egov gov iq
e-Governance in Iraq (
  • The Iraqi e-Governance Ministerial Steering Committee was established in February 2009
  • It is chaired by the Minister of Science and Technology and is widely represented by the ministries across Iraq
  • The National e-Governance Strategy and Plan of Action 2012-2015 has been developed and endorsed by the Cabinet of Iraq
e governance in iraq http www egov gov iq1
e-Governance in Iraq (
  • Sectoral e-strategies developed. Includes: e-health, e-education, e-municipal works and e-citizens’ personnel records
  • A strategic framework for local government developed to guide coordination and cooperation
  • A Training of Master Trainers Programme on e-Governance initiated in July 2010, followed by roll-out of e-governance training throughout Iraq
  • In July 2011, the e-Governance Iraq portal was launched
e governance in iraq http www egov gov iq2
e-Governance in Iraq (
  • Community Services Centres (CSCs) will be established
    • Post offices and youth centres will host the CSCs.
    • The CSCs will be linked with the implementation of the pilot e-services
    • CSCs will address local issues and priorities
  • A Government Interoperability Framework and National Enterprise Architecture developed
the role of cios
The Role of CIOs
  • Providing policy leadership
  • Supporting and monitoring open government initiatives
  • Coordinating ICT programmes and projects across government to ensure they are aligned with overall strategy, and monitoring and reporting on spending
  • Building technology competence among government officials
  • Improving and expanding ICT infrastructure
  • International cooperation with donors and NGOs on e-governance initiatives
cio qualities
CIO Qualities
  • Strong leader with authority across ministerial and departmental boundaries to facilitate strategy and decision-making
  • And skills to:
    • Define shared needs
    • Identify and remove common barriers to collaboration
    • Steer process redesign efforts
    • Motivate and support ministries/departments in achieving shared goals
    • Facilitate communication among and between ministries/departments
cio placement
CIO Placement
  • Mostly in an IT unit
  • About 10% of countries (mostly high-income countries) have a CIO or equivalent officially placed in a senior position in the cabinet office, finance ministry or public administration department
  • CIO councils in some countries to:
    • Address common concerns and challenges of CIOs
    • Develop capacity of CIOs
    • Share knowledge
exercise my wish
Exercise: My Wish

Write down on a card a personal wish on one of the following aspects:

  • How can the challenges in content management and portal management that I face be resolved?
  • What are the policies, systems, procedures and innovations that should be in place to make my work easier?
  • How can we work together better to achieve the goals set in the Iraq e-Governance Strategy an Action Plan?

Assist in grouping these cards into categories

Participants are then given three stickers that can be placed on the cards that address their highest priority issues

These cards will be revisited near the end of the training course in a discussion session




Content Management

Content Management System

Enterprise Content System


Portal Management

  • Content management is the set of processes and technologies that support the planning, collection, development, editing, publishing, preservation and evaluation of information in any form or medium
  • In recent times this information is typically referred to as content or, to be precise, digital content
  • Digital content may take the form of:
  • Text (such as electronic documents)
  • Multimedia files (such as audio or video files) or
  • Other file type that requires management
  • In a content management process, digital content may be created by one or more authors
  • Over time that content may be edited
  • One or more individuals may provide some editorial oversight thereby approving the content for publication
  • Publishing may take many forms. Publishing may be the act of making the content accessible to all users, or granting digital access rights to certain content to a particular person or group of persons
  • Later that content may be superseded by another form of content and thus retired or removed from use

This is an example of a content lifecycle


Content management is a collaborative process. It often consists of the following basic roles and responsibilities:

  • Creator – responsible for creating and editing content
  • Editor – responsible for tuning the content message and the style of delivery, including translation and localization
  • Publisher – responsible for releasing the content for use
  • Administrator – responsible for managing access permissions to folders and files, usually accomplished by assigning access rights to user groups or roles. Administrators may also assist and support users in various ways
  • User/viewer – the person who reads or otherwise takes in content after it is published or shared

This process is governed by a set of rules, standards and workflows

  • A content management system is a system of hardware and software that enables different people (technical and non-technical) to collaboratively create, edit, manage and publish (in a number of formats) a variety of content (text, graphics, video, documents), whilst being constrained by a set of rules, standards and workflows to ensure coherent, validated digital content
  • Key features of a content management system include the following:
  • Allows those without programming language knowledge to manage digital content
  • Standard templates available for different content types (e.g. news, events, blogs)
  • Able to tag and categorize content
  • Able to track and manage multiple versions of a single instance of content
  • Manages permissions for different users
  • Controls workflow of different content
  • Includes configurations for search engine optimization
  • Provides data and access security
  • Enterprise content management is the strategies, methods and tools used to capture, manage, store, preserve, and deliver content and documents related to organizational processes
  • An umbrella term covering:
    • Document management
    • Web content management
    • Search
    • Collaboration
    • Records management
    • Digital asset management
    • Workflow management
  • A web portal is a website that brings information from diverse sources in a unified way
  • e-Governance portals are one of the most popular channel for offering government services online
  • Portals designed around the needs of citizens or businesses are on the rise
  • The goal of these portals is to provide “one-stop shopping” or “single window” for public information and services so that citizens, businesses and government employees no longer need to go to different ministries, departments or agencies to find information or complete a transaction
  • e-Governance portals let governments reach out to the citizens around the globe and around the clock as an integrated and single entity
portal management
Portal Management

Front-end aspects are those functions and features that are visible to the users of the portal. They include:

  • The design, organization, navigation, usability and findability of the portal
  • The types and number of services offered
  • The availability and accessibility, including access through multiple channels and access to all users, including poor, marginalized and disabled groups
  • The increase of citizens’ use of the e-services through awareness and education campaigns
  • The promotion of accountability and transparency
  • The incorporation of security and privacy and the development of citizens’ trust in the use of e-services
portal management1
Portal Management

The back-end involves the internal operations of a government that support core processes and are not accessible or visible to the general public. They include:

  • Business process reengineering to analyse, streamline, consolidate and integrate the steps in a service
  • Change management and motivating personnel
  • Increasing the capacity of the ICT infrastructure to handle the information, services and traffic volumes, cope with a variety of channels and ensure the security of online transactions
  • Defining the ICT architecture that includes development of policies, standards and guidelines for building the ICT infrastructure, including e-government interoperability framework and national enterprise architecture
  • Defining the information architecture that includes a taxonomy, content workflow, and web design and web content guidelines
technological trends

Technological Trends

Mobile Technology

Geographic Information System

Internet of Things

Cloud Computing

Free and Open Source Software

mobile technology and m governance
Mobile Technology and m-Governance
  • Wider reach
  • Inclusive
  • Demand for mobility
  • Always carried, always on
  • More personalization for target users
  • Demand from citizens
three forms of m governance
Three Forms of m-Governance
  • Mobile tools can be used to supplement existing e-government applications based on traditional PCs, adding a new channel to reach citizens or manage processes of governance
  • Second, mobile tools can expand the reach of conventional public services or government processes to citizens who are unserved or underserved
  • Third, m-governance can use the introduction of mobile tools to innovate new ways for governments to interact with and involve constituents, creating new types of services and governance processes
examples of mobile use
Examples of Mobile Use
  • Receive notifications for:
    • Emergencies
    • Reminders, e.g. to renew licenses, hospital appointment
    • News, events, updates
  • Report complaints and crime
  • Send query, e.g. nearest health centre, or request to send examination results
  • Make payments
examples of mobile use1
Examples of Mobile Use
  • Find contact information and location of various institutions
  • Find information about one’s locality, e.g. local attractions, landmarks, hotels, shops, restaurants
  • Promote e-participation, e.g. e-voting
  • Support internal government operations, e.g. collection of data from the field
  • Government-wide initiatives (e.g. Afghanistan, India, Singapore, USA)
limitations of mobile devices
Limitations of Mobile Devices
  • Screen size
  • Short messages
geographic information systems gis
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
  • GIS is a system of hardware and software used for storage, retrieval, mapping, and analysis of geographic data, including predictions and simulations
  • GIS is used to:
  • Increase organizational efficiency
  • Support decision-making
  • Enhance service delivery
  • Monitor the environment
  • Engage with citizens
  • Promote transparency and accountability
the internet of things
The Internet of Things
  • The evolving nature of technology towards a future where everyday objects around us are all linked via a network (the Internet)
  • The concept revolves around such objects all having IP addresses and the user being able to interact with these objects
  • Such a network would depend, for example, on embedding sensors and RFID tags in objects around us and being able to access and interact with them for information and status updates
cloud computing
Cloud Computing
  • Applications and digital services that reside exclusively on the Internet, located on server systems
  • A trend that has been growing with the development of broadband
  • The data in a cloud is centrally hosted, managed, or stored in public or private repositories, or data centres
cloud computing source http en wikipedia org wiki cloud computing
Cloud Computing(Source:
cloud computing1
Cloud Computing
  • Cost is claimed to be reduced. Computing becomes an operational expense, and not a capital one that can be modified as needs and circumstances change
  • Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere
  • Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be shared and utilization be increased. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another
cloud computing2
Cloud Computing
  • Multitenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for:
  • Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.)
  • Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)
  • Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilized
  • Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different places
security and privacy in cc
Security and Privacy in CC


  • Loss of control over sensitive data
  • Data segregation over a wider area of greater number of devices
  • Multi-tenancy
  • Malicious insiders
free and open source software
Free and Open Source Software

Characteristics of FOSS

  • Freedom to run the software
  • Freedom to study and adapt the software
  • Freedom to redistribute these software
  • Freedom to improve the software and release the improvements for others to use
reasons for using foss
Reasons for Using FOSS
  • Affordable and high quality
  • Builds capacity
  • Bridges the digital divide
foss adoption by governments
FOSS Adoption by Governments
  • Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, and Bulgaria, have mandated the use of FOSS
  • Bahrain, China, Costa Rica, Malaysia, Philippines, and South Africa have a stated policy preference for FOSS
  • Do you think these technological trends are relevant to the Iraqi context?
  • How is Iraq taking advantage of these technological trends?
  • What do you think are the challenges that Iraq face in adopting the technologies mentioned?
  • Overall progress in e-governance
  • Many countries have e-governance strategy in place
  • Most countries have e-governance portal
  • Some countries in the Arab region have made rapid progress in e-governance and there are a number of best practices within the region that Iraq can learn from
  • Barriers and challenges remain
  • The digital divide impedes the uptake of e-governance
  • Political, regulatory and budgetary constraints
  • Lack of awareness and capacity
  • Lack of motivation
  • To overcome some of the challenges, three global trends have been identified:
  • Countries are moving to an integrated unified whole-of-government model
  • Countries are paying closer attention to multichannel service delivery
  • Countries are engaging more closely with citizens
  • e-Governance portals are one of the most popular channel for offering government services online
  • These portals aim to package and deliver content and services in ways that directly fit citizens’ or businesses’ needs
  • These portals aim to provide “one-stop shopping” or “single window” for public information and services, anytime, and anywhere
  • There are a number of technological trends that have implications for the management of contents and portals
  • Mobile technology and the deployment of m-governance tools
  • Geographic information systems and sensor networks
  • Cloud computing
  • Free and open source software
  • Deployment of technologies should be done in the context of social and economic development goals and should support and enhance development outcomes
  • Shifting to a more citizen-centric, interconnected whole-of-government approach will require collaboration and streamlining not only among governments but also with private sector and civil societies
  • True transformation needs governments to pay close attention to re-engineering processes, reforming institutions, building capacity and creating an environment for greater accountability and transparency
  • e-Governance standardization gives rise to positive outcomes such as interoperability, consistency, reusability and quality maintenance
  • Content management and portal management needs to be take this broader context into consideration
  • Because Iraq is considered one of the late adopters of e-governance, you have the advantage of learning from past lessons and failures and build upon and adapt the good practices from other countries
  • Conduct an online research of e-governance in Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia or Dubai/UAE (select one country)
  • Draw out the lessons learned and good practices for content management and portal management in Iraq
  • Summarize findings on a flipchart for presentation in a plenary