THE ADDIE MODEL An Instructional Systems Design By: Maria Pena
INTRODUCTION “The ADDIE model is a framework that lists generic processes that instructional designers and training developers use (Wikipedia, 2014)”.
WHAT IS ADDIE? The “Addie Model” article from Wikipedia (2014), describes ADDIE as “the most common model used for creating instructional materials”.
WHAT IS ADDIE? According to the “Addie Model” article from Wikipedia (2014), it is a guideline that can be used for building effective training and performance support tools in five phases.
BEGINNINGS OF ADDIE Florida State University ‘s Educational Technology Dept. developed the model along with a branch of the U.S. Army which evolved into the “Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development” to train the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines. (Molenda, 2003, p.35).
WHAT DOES ADDIE STAND FOR? According to Michael Molenda (2003), “ADDIE is an acronym referring to the major processes that comprise the generic ISD process: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation” (p.35).
UBIQUITY OF ADDIE “ADDIE is a foundational element of the field of IDT (Bichelmeyer, 2004, p.2)” . When ADDIE is used in ISD models, the processes are not only sequential, but also iterative (Molenda, 2003, p. 35).
FIVE PHASES OF ADDIE ANALYSIS DESIGN . DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION Molenda (2003), p 35, Figure 1. An ISD Model Featuring the ADDIE Processes (Source Grafinger, 1988).
ANALYSIS According to Angiah L. Davis (2013), this is the first step in the ADDIE model and it serves the following: • Identifies the instructional problem and the learner characteristics. • Identifies the instructional goal and the learning objective. • Provides the blueprint for the entire ID process and guides you along the processes. • Establishes the timeline to complete the instructional project.
DESIGN The design process is the second step of the ADDIE model according to Davis (2013), and the following must be accomplished: • An instructional strategies outline must be created. • Learning activities and assessments are determined.
DEVELOPMENT The development process is the third step of the ADDIE model according to Davis (2013), and the following must be accomplished: • The instructional designer must create the educational content, assignments and the assessment. • The technologies that will enhance the learning experience will be selected .
EVALUATION • The evaluation process involves a formative and summative evaluation. • “Formative evaluation is a measurement of learning outcomes during the instruction process, and summative evaluation—measurement of learning outcomes after instruction—is the final stage (Davis, 2013)”.
CONCLUSION Bichelmeyer (2004), states, “One area where there does appear to be a consensus among IDT professionals is that we consider the ADDIE model to be a core element of our field” (p.5). ADDIE is one of the most popular ISD models. It is consistent and provides a starting point for projects in a wide range of fields . “It is flexible enough to allow anyone, at anytime to revisit a step, and refine it (Davis, 2013)”.
IMPLEMENTATION According to Davis (2013), “The implementation phase includes the testing of prototypes where training for the instructor happens followed by learners participating in the instruction”. In this phase, instructors are trained in how to use and deliver the newly designed instruction to students and how to measure the learning outcomes of the new instruction.
REFERENCES ADDIE Model. (2014). In Wikipedia online. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADDIE_Model Bichelmeyer, B. (2004). “The ADDIE Model” – A metaphor for the lack of clarity in the field of IDT. Retrieved from: Indiana University , Website: http://www.indiana.edu/~idt/shortpapers/documents/IDTf_Bic.pdf Davis, A.L., (2013, April). Using instructional design principles to develop effective information literacy instruction The ADDIE model. College & Research Libraries News ,Vol. 74 (4), 205-207 . Retrieved from: http://crln.acrl.org/content/74/4/205.full Molenda, M. (2003,May/June). In Search of the Elusive ADDIE Model. Performance Improvement, 42 (5), 34-36. Retrieved from: http://iptde.boisestate.edu/FileDepository.nsf/bf25ab0f47ba5dd785256499006b1 5a4/693b43c6386707fc872578150059c1f3/$FILE/Molenda_03.pdf