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Non-Renewable Fuels Environmental Impact. US Energy Consumption by Source (1999). Renewables , 8%. Renewables 7.2 QUADS. All Energy Sources 96.7 QUADS. Non Renewable Fuels. Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Nuclear Fission. Coal. World Coal Consumption.

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us energy consumption by source 1999
US Energy Consumption by Source (1999)

Renewables , 8%

Renewables 7.2 QUADS

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All Energy Sources 96.7 QUADS

non renewable fuels
Non Renewable Fuels
  • Coal
  • Petroleum
  • Natural Gas
  • Nuclear Fission

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slide4

Coal

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world coal consumption
World Coal Consumption
  • World coal consumption is projected to increase from 5.3 billion tons in 1997 to 7.6 billion tons in 2020.
  • US annual coal consumption is approximately 1 billion tons

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coal reserves m metric tons
Coal Reserves (M metric tons)

US – 275.5

World -1088.6

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Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/table82.html

coal analyses
Coal Analyses
  • Proximate Analysis
  • Ultimate Analysis
  • Calorific Value

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proximate analysis
Proximate Analysis
  • Moisture
  • Volatile Matter
  • Ash
  • Fixed Carbon (obtained by difference)

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calorific value heating value
Calorific Value (Heating Value)
  • Heating or Calorific Value is the amount of heat released when a unit mass of fuel is burned (Btu/lb. or cal/g)
  • Calorific value has implications for pollution measurements such as SO2 whose emissions are calculated on a lb per million Btu basis

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coal ranks
Coal Ranks
  • There are 4 general ranks for coals:
    • Lignite low rank
    • Subbituminous
    • Bituminous
    • Anthracite High rank

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coal s future
Coal’s Future

Lifetime (of a resource) = Reserves

Annual Use

Reserves to Production Ratio (R/P Ratio)

World 1173 G Tons / 4.33 G Tons/y

= 271 Years

USA 277 G Tons/0.99 G Tons/y

= 280 Years

Note: Reserves are likely to increase as well as decrease, usage is also expected to change

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slide13

Petroleum

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petroleum
Petroleum
  • Naturally occurring liquid containing a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (molecules made of C and H atoms)
  • Also contains few compounds containing N, S, and O atoms

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petroleum composition
Petroleum Composition

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crude oil reserves b bbls
Crude Oil Reserves (B bbls)

US – 21.8

World – 1,016

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Source: www.bp.com

slide18
Production and Consumption (mn bbls/day)BP Amoco Statistical Review of World Energy 2000 (http://www.bp.com)
  • World
    • Production – 73
  • United States
    • Production – 9.2
    • Consumption – 18.9

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one barrel of oil 42 us gallons produces
One Barrel of Oil (42 US gallons) produces …
  • Gasoline (19.5 Gallons)
  • Distillate Fuel Oil (9.2)
  • Kerosene (4.1)
  • Residual Fuel Oil (2.3)
  • Lubricating Oil, Asphalt, Wax (2)
  • Petrochemicals for plastics and polymers (2)
  • Total Yield: 44.4 gallons

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how long can we depend on petroleum
How long can we depend on Petroleum?
  • World =

1016,000 million barrels/73 million bbls/day = 13,967 days= 38.1 years

US

= 21,800 million bbls/18.9 million bbls/day

= 1,153 days or 3.16 years

if we keep importing at the current rate

= 21,800 million bbls/9.3 million bbls/day

= 2,344 days or 6.4 years

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slide22

Natural Gas

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natural gas
Natural Gas

WHAT IS IT?

  • Principally methane, CH4, with some ethane (C2H6) and propane (C3H8), and impurities such as CO2, H2S, and N2.

CALORIFIC VALUE

  • Approximately 1,000 Btu/cu.ft (22,500 Btu/lb)

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natural gas types
Natural Gas Types
  • WET- contains HCS other than Methane and ethane
  • SOUR- contains H 2S,which is highly undesirable due to corrosion, and SO2 formation upon combustion.

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reserves trillion cu ft
Reserves (Trillion Cu. Ft)

US - 167 T Cu. ft

World - 5210 T cu. ft

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how long can we depend on natural gas
How long can we depend on Natural Gas?
  • US= 166 T. Cu. Ft / 21.7 T. Cu. Ft per year (1999) = 7.6 years
  • World = 5240 T cu. Ft/84.2 T. Cu.ft per year

=62 years

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utilization combustion premium fuel
Utilization-CombustionPremium Fuel
  • Highest calorific value of any fossil fuel (1,000 Btu/cu. ft. or 24,000 Btu/lb)
  • No ash in the fuel - no mess
  • Easy transportation and no storage space required
  • Better combustion efficiency
  • Less CO2 emissions compared to oil and coal for the same heat release

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comparison of fossil fuels
Comparison of Fossil Fuels

Composition Heating Value

Coal CH 0.8 13,000 Btu/lb

Oil CH2 20,000 Btu/lb

Natural Gas CH4 22,000 Btu/lb

All also contain oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen etc.

1 gal of Petroleum = 10 lb of Coal = 150 cu.ft Gas

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cost of energy mmbtu for oil
Cost of Energy/MMBtu for oil
  • Price of oil is usually given in $ / barrel
  • If the price is $22/barrel
  • One Barrel of oil has 5,800,000 Btu

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cost of energy per mmbtu natural gas
Cost of Energy per MMBtu- Natural gas
  • Usually price is given as $/1,000 Cu. Ft
  • Say $7.44/1000Cu. Ft (PA)
  • Energy Content 1,000 Btu/Cu. Ft

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cost of energy million btu
Cost of Energy- $/Million Btu
  • Price is given in $/ton. Approximate average price is $33.26/ton in PA
  • Calorific value = 13,000 Btu/lb or 20.77 million BTUs/ton

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us energy use and environmental consequences
US Energy use and Environmental Consequences

Emissions

Fossil Fuels

CO2

CO

Combustion

SO2

NOx

Carbon

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

Sulfur

Oxygen

Particulate Matter

PM10

PM2.5

NH3

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greenhouse gas emissions
Greenhouse Gas Emissions

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nitrogen oxides no x
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
  • Nitrogen oxides, like hydrocarbons, are precursors to the formation of ground level ozone and thereby to photochemical smog
  • Precursors to the formation of acid rain
  • Long-term exposures to NO2 may lead to increased susceptibility to respiratory infection and may cause permanent alterations in the lung.

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carbon monoxide
Carbon Monoxide
  • Product of incomplete combustion
  • Reduces the flow of oxygen in the bloodstream
  • Particularly dangerous to persons with heart disease.

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sulfur dioxide
Sulfur Dioxide
  • High concentrations of SO2 can result in temporary breathing impairment for asthmatic children and adults
    • in conjunction with high levels of PM, include respiratory illness, alterations in the lungs’ defenses, and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease.
  • Together, SO2 and NOx are the major precursors to acidic deposition (acid rain)
  • major precursor to PM2.5, which is a significant health concern

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particulate matter
Particulate Matter
  • Health effects
  • Visibility impairment
  • Atmospheric deposition
  • Aesthetic damage

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additional resources
Additional Resources
  • http://www.epa.gov/air/aqtrnd00/
  • http://www.eia.doe.gov
  • http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/acidrain/
  • http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/
  • http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/gooduphigh/
  • http://www.epa.gov/air/concerns/#smog

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