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Democratic Politics, Religious Revival, & Reform
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  1. DemocraticPolitics, Religious Revival, & Reform 1824-1840

  2. Backdrop • Era of Good Feelings ends 1824 • Westward migration • Growing commercial activity • Increasing sectional conflict over slavery • Beginning of second American political party system

  3. Monroe’s Legacy • Republican candidates for president in 1824 election • John Calhoun-War • William Crawford-Treasury • John Quincy Adams-State • Henry Clay-Speaker of House • Andrew Jackson-newcomer • Elected Tennessee Senator 1823

  4. One = None • No Federalist even stood a chance • Only 1 party meant effectively NO PARTY • Conflicts over nationalism and sectionalism • No real method for selecting the candidate

  5. Inconclusive Election • Adams: New England, NY • Clay: KY, OH, MO • Crawford: VA, GA, DE • Jackson took Southeast, IL, IN, Carolinas, PA, MD, NJ • Inconclusive electoral and popular votes

  6. Clay’s American System • Defeated in election • NE & NY against internal improvements • South & SW against protective tariffs • Sectionalism incompatible with national system

  7. Election Results

  8. Election by House • Clay, as Speaker, becomes “president maker” • Clay sees Jackson as unfit • “I can’t believe that killing 2500 Englishmen at New Orleans qualifies for the various, difficult and complicated duties of Chief Magistracy.”

  9. Clay vs. Jackson • Natural rivalry as the West’s leading political figures • Bitter enemies since Clay condemned Jackson’s invasion of Florida in 1818 • Crawford seriously ill & states’ rights opponent of American system

  10. Clay Supports Adams • Adams wins 13 states • Jackson wins 7 states • Crawford wins 4 states • Adams picks Clay as Secretary of State • “The Corrupt Bargain”; “The people have been cheated.”

  11. Yet Another Duel • John Randolph of VA criticized Clay and Adams • “Unholy alliance between the Puritan and the black-leg.” • Clay challenges Randolph to a duel • 3 shots fired; neither injured but political damage done

  12. Inaugural Address • Emphasized “spirit of improvement” • Recommended • National university • Astronomical observatory • Uniform standard of weights & measures

  13. Recommendations cont • Reform patent system • Department of Interior\ • Exploration of western territories • Vast system of roads, canals, and harbor facilities

  14. In the Shadow of 1824 • Could not defuse/neutralize criticism coming from Jackson supporters • Could not deflect country away from sectionalism and states’ rights • Did not build new bases of support

  15. Tariffs • Tariff of 1824 • Higher duties on woolens, cotton, iron, other finished goods (good for NE) • KY got tariff on hemp and raw wool • Also on sugar, molasses, coffee and salt

  16. Calhoun’s Plan • 1827 to support Jackson • Outrageously high tariffs on raw materials • Even eastern manufacturers would join South to defeat it • Jackson supporters in NE could pretend support, etc.

  17. Foiled Again • John Randolph of VA saw through the scheme • Only manufacturing supported by this bill was the “manufacture of a president.” • Tariff failed but Jackson won in 1828 anyway

  18. Single Term President • President is: • custodian of the public good • Aloof from partisan politics • Alienated supporters by naming opponents to high office • Good way to only serve 4 years

  19. Adams  Jackson  • Very popular as hero of New Orleans • Committees supporting his candidacy formed 1828 • Adams’ men vs. Jackson’s men vs. Clay’s men • On verge of new political system

  20. Martin Van Buren • Son of a tavern keeper (middling)Worked his way to being governor of New York • Albany Regency: powerful political machine • Arch-rival of DeWitt Clinton • Genial and good political sense

  21. Need for 2 Parties • Evidenced by 1824 election • Republicans splintered into sectional pieces • No candidate electoral majority • House decided under charges of corruption • Let parties clash with a clear winner

  22. 1828: Political Parties • Democratic Party • Andrew Jackson aka “Old Hickory” as president • John Calhoun as Vice Prez • National Republicans • John Quincy Adams as Prez • Richard Rush (Sec of Treas) as Vice Prez

  23. Campaign of 1828 • Mudslinging at its worst. • National Republicans attacked Jackson as a drunken gambler, adulterer, and a murderer. • Jackson’s supporters accused Adams of wearing silk underwear, being rich, and gaining favor of Tsar of Russia

  24. More Mud Backfires • Jackson’s appeal is enhanced by charges he is an illiterate backwoodsman • Clash between “the democracy of the country, on the one hand, and the lordly purse-proud aristocracy on the other.”

  25. Is there any truth? • Jackson a common man, mind unclouded by learning, morals simple & true • Jackson was really a wealthy planter; slaveholder; had studied law

  26. 1828 Election Results • Jackson wins by comfortable margin • Electoral vote 178 to 83. • Adams took all of New England except for Maine and some NY • Popular vote 642,553 (56%) to 500,897 (44%)

  27. Inauguration Day • Jackson breaks with tradition by inviting public to White House for reception • Wild party; crowd pressed to shake Old Hickory’s hand; lots of damage to glasses, china, interior

  28. Inauguration Day 2 • Jackson escapes out the back • People finally “lured” outside with promises of more alcoholic beverages outside on the lawn. • “It was the people’s day, and the people’s President, and the people would rule.”

  29. More Democracy • More white men gain right to vote • Poll Tax replaces property ownership as requirement • Election of 1824 • 335,000 people voted • Election of 1828 • 1,100,000 people voted

  30. Spoils System • Believed majority should rule • Ordinary citizens should serve in government • Appointed his supporters to government jobs • Forced out large numbers of government employees to place his own people

  31. Spoils System 2 • Since government jobs were “so plain and simple,” they should be rotated at will and given to supporters • Idea of revolving door so that more people could be educated about government

  32. Internal Improvements • Thought public works was favors to special interests and corrupt giveaways • Rejected federal support for roads in states • 1830 vetoed federal money for road in KY for purely local character

  33. Southern Support • Strongest supporters • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Southern support tested by Tariff of 1828, however • Tariff originated under Adams, so “Tariff of Abominations should hurt Adams.” Jackson took the heat for this though.

  34. Electoral System Change • Caucus System: Members of Congress “caucus” to select presidential candidate • National Nominating Convention • State delegates gather to decide on party’s nominee • 1832 Jackson is renominated

  35. Jackson v. Calhoun • Tariff of 1828 causes rift between Jackson and VP Calhoun • Calhoun originally a nationalist, war hawk, supporter of 1816 protectionist tariffs • Helps defense by ending dependence on foreign goods

  36. Jackson v. Calhoun 2 • Country not as concerned about defense now • Calhoun ambition to be prez • Assumed would succeed A.J. • Required continued support in South which was growing increasingly anti-tariff

  37. South Carolina • Center of cotton production shifted to AL and MS • Voters blamed resulting economic decline of 1820s on tariffs • Tariffs drive  price of manufactured goods

  38. SC 2 • Tariffs threaten  sale of British textiles in US • Maybe lower English demand for Southern cotton & cut cotton prices • With NE industrialization, tariffs appear more and more as sectional legislation

  39. KY & VA Resolutions • 1798-99 • Union compact by which STATES gave certain limited and specified powers to the federal government • Calhoun believed protective tariffs were unconstitutional

  40. Nullification • Tariff of 1828 could raise little revenue, so unconstitutional • Calhoun anonymously wrote South Carolina Exposition and Protest • Tariff unconstitutional • States had right to nullify the law within their borders

  41. First Tariffs then Slavery... • South against tariffs for economic reasons • But scared that Fed Govt could pass sectional legislation interfering with Slavery • SC: African-Americans were majority of population in 1830 • Afraid of riots/abolitionists

  42. Keep the North Happy • Jackson distributed federal revenue to the states • limit hint of sectionalism • limit fed govt spending • Ease tariffs down from high 1828 levels

  43. Petticoat War • 1829: John Eaton (Sec of War) married widowed Peggy O’Neal • Peggy accused of flirting with Eaton while 1st husband alive • Eaton and Peggy snubbed by Calhoun’s wife and friends in cabinet

  44. Petticoat War 2 • Jackson remembered own experience with wife Rachel • Befriended Eatons • Concluded that Calhoun initiated snubbing to advance own presidential aspirations • Guess who doesn’t run as VP in 1832?

  45. Calhoun Admits • 1831: he wrote South Carolina Exposition and Protest • November 1832: SC nullified the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 • forbade collection of customs duties within SC

  46. “Mad” Jackson • “abominable doctrine” • Result in anarchy • SC: unprincipled men who would rather rule in hell than be subordinate in heaven.” • 12/1832: Nullification is unconstitutional • Sent arms to Unionists in SC

  47. Making Nice • March 1833: “The olive branch and the sword” • Tariff of 1833 (Compromise) gradually reducing tariffs • Force Bill: Authorized prez to use arms to collect customs duties in SC

  48. Back at you • SC nullifies the Force Bill • But sees Compromise Tariff as concession • rescinds nullification of tariffs of 1828 and 1832 • “In SC, he (AJ) received a humble birthplace. May he not find in it a traitor’s grave.”

  49. Henry Clay’s Role • Moving force behind Compromise Tariff • Afraid Force Bill would bring civil war • Wanted to stay in the public eye and not get lost in Jackson’s popularity • Clay = Great Compromiser

  50. Jackson vs. the Rich • Gap between rich and poor growing 1820-1830 • Okay to get rich through hard work • But, wealthy often grew richer by securing favors from corrupt legislatures