AB 2913 - SDAIESecondary Teachers Day One of Six Adapted from Anita Hernández By Sally Fox and Jeffery Heil
Purpose • You are here to learn about how people learn languages, so that you can assist students in acquiring language as you give them content instruction. You are here to earn official authorization to teach English learners. • For high percentages of students to succeed, every teacher must help students develop academic language. • There are strategies and instructional approaches that will make a huge difference.
Norms (Using Think-Pair-Share) • Implicit norms What do we expect of each other? • Explicit norms What will we require of each other by stating it clearly? • Commitment vs. compliance
Who’s in the Room? (Quick Tally) • By years of experience • By site • By subject(s) taught • By fluency in languages other than English • By outside interests • By number of siblings or children
Line Up! • By height • By birth month • By number of years as teacher in Grossmont UHSD • By proficiency in Spanish • By proficiency in French!
Team Up! • Number off, one through ten. All the ones find a table and take your binders there, number twos, threes, etc. (There are ten tables.) • You will be a team now for the remainder of our time together. • Let’s make sure we know each other by doing the next activity…
Extended Name Tag Favorite Motive for Book(s) Becoming a Teacher My Name_____________________ Class(es) I Teach __________ Cultural Origins, Experiences Heritage, Learning a Birthplace Foreign Language
INQUIRY CHART WHAT IS…? WHO IS IT FOR? • SDAIE • ELD • CELDT
Portfolio • A: Introductory remarks that describe you and the classes you teach right now. • B: Task Analysis. Fully analyze, using the chart format provided, 12-15 tasks. • C: Reflections for each of the first four sessions, TYPED for portfolio. • D: Three samples of your individual work completed during these sessions, annotated with 2-3 sentences explaining what it is.
Portfolio • E: Three samples of COLLABORATIVE work completed during the session with your fellow teachers. Include ANNOTATION. • F: Four sequences of tasks for your class(es). Each sequence needs 3-5 interrelated tasks. Write a description and include annotation-- Two or three sentences on each sequence to explain to the reader what the sequence is and how it was completed.
Portfolio • G: Four samples of students’ COLLABORATIVE work from your class. Include ANNOTATION. • H: Individual tasks; 3 required. These tasks should have been used in your class. Include ANNOTATION. • I: Three samples of individual student tasks. Include ANNOTATION.
Portfolio • J: Peer visit. Visit someone in our group or someone else who has CLAD or this certification. Are the ELs engaged and performing? Reading and writing? Visit for an hour or so and write 1 or 1 ½ pages, double spaced, telling about the visit, what you observed, etc. Begin with an introduction with who/what/when/where to make it easier on the reader who will be judging your portfolio.
Passing the Course • The binder includes the components of the assessment scoring for the portfolio. • The binder also includes the Essay Scoring Criteria, and tips on each section. • There will be many opportunities to plan your portfolio and practice for the essay test. • DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME…$50 charge for re-scoring portfolios or re-taking tests!
Passing the Course • After you take the test you will receive written confirmation within a couple of months IF YOU DO NOT PASS. (Don’t worry, most of you will pass the first time. No news is good news in this case.) • Prepare your portfolio and MAKE A COPY FOR YOURSELF. Submit it to EL Services Unit at SDCOE within 2 months of the date you take your test.
Passing the Course • After you submit your portfolio, you’ll receive written notice of passing within 3-4 months • If your portfolio is not satisfactory you will be told why in writing, too. • Along with the confirmation of passing the course you will receive the paperwork you’ll need to complete in order to submit the application to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing.
Passing the Course • Read the instructions carefully and don’t forget to do this step!! • We recommend you bring the paperwork with the money order or cashier’s check to the CCTC to the Credentialing Services Department of the SD County Office of Education on Linda Vista Road. That way you’ll walk away with a receipt that you can copy for your Human Resources Department.
EL Population - Predictions Think about answers to these questions… • How many English learners are there in the State of California? (There are currently 6.2 million students K-12.) • How many English learners are there in San Diego County? • How many English learners are currently attending your school? Now, share your predictions with your neighbor.
Finding EL Data • Dataquest, which can be found on the CA Dept of Ed website, will allow you to gather data on schools, districts, counties, etc. • http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/ • Can you find information on your school?
PARLEZ-VOUS FRANÇAIS? Let’s find out what it feels like to be in a class where we don’t know the language very well. SCENARIO: You family has had to flee the USA and you are refugees in Southern France. Mme Renard is your teacher. She does not speak English.
SDAIE Theoretical Foundations • Second language development • Sociocultural aspects of learning • Two articles by Dr. Aida Walqui can be found in the SDAIE binder • Sheltered Instruction: Doing it Right (Section 1; 1-15) • Literature Review: Sheltered Instruction (Section 6; 1-30)
Second Language Development (Section C in Essay) • Krashen - comprehensible input (1 of the 5 hypotheses in his “Natural Approach”) • Swain - comprehensible output • Cummins • Communicative Competence (Hymes) BICS/CALP • Interdependence hypothesis • Threshhold hypothesis
Krashen • Comprehensible Input (i+1) delivered within a low anxiety environment is a causative variable in second language acquisition. • Language can contain some new elements in it but it is understood by the learner because of the gestures, linguistic and/or situational clues.
Merrill Swain (1986) • Comprehensible Output, the learner’s attempts to produce utterances that are comprehensible to others, plays a key role in second language development • Opportunities for the EL to practice the language: speaking and writing, too.
Cummins • Two Dimensions to Communicative Competence • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) using a second language in face-to-face situations, where the repair breakdowns in communication are easily repairable. • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) using a second language in situations where the content is de-contextualized, and usually cognitively demanding
Communicative Competence (Hymes/Cummins) • The actual use of language in various contexts, both formal and informal • Oral communication • Reading to gain information • Written communication
Communicative Competence (Hymes/Cummins) • The actual use of language • What is the communicative competence that you expect students in your class to gain? • Orally in whole-class discussions, or with other students in small groups/pairs • Written assignments, reports, homework • Non-verbal
Cummins’Interdependence Hypothesis • Development of student’s cognitive and academic skills in L1 is as important as L2 exposure for developmental cognitive and academic skill in L2.
Cummins’Threshold Hypothesis • Students need to have a threshold level of proficiency in L2 before the cognitive benefits of bilingualism show.
Sociocultural Aspects of Learning (Item B in Essay) • Vygotsky—ZPD • Lave—Apprenticeship Model • Bruner—Scaffolding • Tharp & Gallimore—Four Stages of Assisted Performance
Sociocultural Aspects of Learning - Vygotsky • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) • What an individual can do with the assistance of an adult or more capable peer, he or she can later do on his or her own.
Sociocultural Aspects of Learning - Lave • Apprenticeship Model • Based on the role of the apprentice and the expert in the learning process • In the apprenticeship model, learning occurs as newcomers gradually increase their participation in communities of practice and gain access to a wide range of ongoing activities and resources in the form of interactions with masters and other newcomers
Let’s experience it! • Line up by proficiency in Spanish • Number off: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 • All the 1s get together, 2s, etc., to form teams • Choose one of the least proficient team members to share something from their wallet or purse.That person needs to tell the team about it in Spanish! (Team supports and helps, teaching him/her the words) • The sharers rotate to another team and practice their new words
Sociocultural Aspects of Learning - Tharp & Gallimore • Four Stages in Assisted Performance • Gallimore and Tharp (in Moll 1990) describe the process of internalization as occupying four stages in the zone of proximal development, a gradual process through which the learner moves from assisted performance to unassisted and self-regulated performance.
Sociocultural Aspects of Learning - Tharp & Gallimore • Stage 1: where performance is assisted by more capable others. • Stage 2: where performance is assisted by the self, ... [but where] performance is [not] fully developed [n]or automatized. • Stage 3: where performance is developed, automatized, and fossilized. • Stage 4: where de-automatization of performance leads to recursion through the zone of proximal development.
Sociocultural Aspects of Learning - Tharp & Gallimore • Individuals’ learning experiences throughout life are made up of ZPD sequences, from other-assistance to self-assistance, in a recursive loop that facilitates the development of new capacities. For every individual, at any point in time, there will be a mix of other-regulation, self-regulation, and automatized processes
Sequence of TasksGetting a piece of PIE!! (See section D. of Essay Assessment Scoring) • Preparing the learner • Interacting with text • Extending understanding
Sequence of TasksGetting a piece of PIE!! This sequence is not a lesson plan, but rather a lesson design that is helpful for ELs • Think 10/2 or 5/1, where you give 10 minutes of instruction followed by 2 minutes of time to process (talking or writing or drawing) • Spell out the general information and what is to be accomplished and learned
Elements of Scaffolding • In her essay on sheltered instruction, Aida Walqui discusses “Some Ways of Scaffolding Instruction.” (pages 6 - 11) • We will preview each strategy with the windowpane strategy of non-linguistic representations for each key element. • We will read the essay and underline or highlight key ideas to add to our windowpane.
1. Modeling • When introducing a new task or working format, it is indispensable that the learners be able to see what a developing or finished product looks like. • It is a great idea to keep student samples (i.e., anchor papers) to show desired output.
Why Modeling? • Clarifies procedures through direct experience • Provides concrete examples of what a students finished product may look like • Appropriate language and discourse
2. Bridging • Students will only be able to learn new concepts and language if these are firmly built on previous knowledge and understanding. • Another important aspect of bridging is establishing a personal link between the student and the subject matter, showing how new material is relevant to the student’s life, as an individual, here and now. • Brainstorming, anticipatory guides or quickwrites, looking at text for clues, inquiry charts, K-W-L.
Why Bridging? • Provides a personal connection between the learner and the theme of the class • Taps into students’ prior knowledge relevant to the class theme
3. Contextualization • One of the biggest problems Els have in content area classes is reading the textbooks. . .Teachers may also provide verbal contextualization by creating analogies based on students experiences. • Sensory learning, using realia or visuals, kinesthetic activities.
Why Contextualization? • Creates a clear experiential environment that familiarizes new, unknown concepts and throws light on them. • Makes difficult language comprehensible.
4. Schema Building • In preparation for a lesson, for example, a teacher may present an advance organizer, and walk students through the most important pieces of information that will be discussed. • At the beginning of a new unit of study, a teacher-prepared “big book” full of photographs and succinct information presenting the “big picture” conceptually.
Why Schema Building? • Helps students establish the connections that exist between and across content areas that may otherwise appear unrelated. • Helps students gain perspective with regards to where ideas fit in the larger scheme of things. • Helps students see commonalities across curriculuar areas through themes.
5. Metacognitive Development • SDAIE fosters autonomy through explicit teaching of strategies. We may define strategies as plans of attack that enable learning to successfully tackle academic tasks. • Reciprocal teaching, think-alouds and K-W-L activities. • Teacher asks, “How did you know?”
Why Metacognitive Development? • Supports students’ internalization of strategies through a conscious focus on the implementation of plans of attack. • Fosters student autonomy through self-monitoring and self-assessment. • Prepares ELs for college by developing study skills.
6. Text Re-presentation • The best kind of language learning occurs when students are busily engaged in the accomplishment of tasks that are interesting and meaningful for them, where the emphasis is placed on the communication that is being carried out, and not on its formal aspects. • Extends understanding through application of learning and projects where students may be creative in fulfilling ways.
Why Text Re-presentation? • Invites students to apply new knowledge in novel formats. • Revisits and re-uses learning making it more likely to be remembered.