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Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Lesson 2. August 13, 2012. Catalyst. Mystery Elements! Use your periodic table and the clues below to determine the identity of 3 mystery elements: This element, with a mass number of 207, is poisonous.

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catalyst
Catalyst
  • Mystery Elements! Use your periodic table and the clues below to determine the identity of 3 mystery elements:
  • This element, with a mass number of 207, is poisonous.
  • This element, made of atoms with 78 electrons in the neutral state, is a very expensive metal.
  • This element, made of atoms with 16 protons, is a gas that smells like rotten eggs.
1 answer lead
1. Answer: Lead

Atomic Symbol: Pb

Atomic Number: 82

Mass Number: 207.2

207Pb

2 answer platinum
2. Answer: Platinum

Atomic Symbol: Pt

Atomic Number: 78

Mass Number: 195.08

195Pt

3 answer sulfur
3. Answer: Sulfur

Atomic Symbol: S

Atomic Number: 16

Mass Number: 32.07

32S

objectives
Objectives
  • I can compare and contrast ions and isotopes of different elements.
  • I can use the mass number and atomic number to calculate the number of neutrons.
  • I can research the properties of elements.
agenda
Agenda
  • Catalyst
  • Hour 1:
    • Ions and Isotopes
    • Atomic Structure Worksheet & Exit Slip
  • Hour 2:
    • Element Project
slide8

Sometimes, atoms of the same element have different numbers of neutrons. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.

isotopes practice
Isotopes Practice
  • Three isotopes of magnesium are
    • Magnesium – 24 (24Mg)
    • Magnesium – 25 (25Mg)
    • Magnesium – 23 (23Mg)
  • In your notes, write down the numbers of protons, electrons, and neutrons for each of the magnesium isotopes.
  • Discuss with your partner: what is the same about these isotopes, what is different?
slide10

Ions are atoms with a net charge. The ion is charged because there are an unequal number of protons and electrons.

  • The charge is shown on the right side of the symbol:
  • Ex: Mg with 12 protons and 10 electrons Mg2+
positive or negative
Positive or Negative?
  • Positively charged ions have more protons than electrons
    • Ex: Ca2+ (calcium ion) has 20 protons and 18 electrons
      • 20 – 18 = 2
  • Negatively charged ions have more electrons than protons
    • Ex: Br- (bromine ion) has 35 protons and 36 electrons
      • 35 – 36 = -1
name that ion
Name that ion!
  • Sample:
    • 19 protons, 20 neutrons, 18 electrons
      • Answer: K+1 +19 p + (-18 e) = +1
  • Now you try:
  • 13 protons, 14 neutrons, 10 electrons
  • 1 proton and no electrons
  • 53 protons, 73 neutrons, 54 electrons
  • 16 protons, 16 neutrons, 18 electrons
  • 4 protons, 5 neutrons, 2 electrons
atomic structures are represented by symbols
Atomic Structures are Represented by Symbols

The atomic number always appears on the lower left side of the symbol.

Mass numbers are written on the upper left side of the symbol.

The charge on an ion is shown on the right side of the symbol.

Cl- Na+ Mg2+ Al3+ F- O2-

agenda1
Agenda
  • Catalyst
  • Hour 1:
    • Ions and Isotopes
    • Atomic Structure Worksheet & Exit Slip
  • Hour 2:
    • Element Project
introduction to element project
Introduction to Element Project
  • Three Part Project
  • Final Due Date: Wednesday August 22
  • Purpose
  • The purpose of this project is to allow you to learn about one element on the Periodic Table. You will research your element and then present the information you find in a short report. Each student will be assigned a different element. The project contains three parts: (1) Element Card, (2) Element Properties, and (3) History/Uses of the Element essay.
introduction to element project1
Introduction to Element Project
  • Part I: Element Card
  • You will get a piece of construction paper in class. On this paper, make a periodic table square for your element. The card must include the name of your element, the atomic symbol, atomic mass, and atomic number. Additionally, you may decorate the card with drawings or pictures that relate to your element. The atomic symbol should be large. We will construct our own periodic table with these cards.
introduction to element project2
Introduction to Element Project
  • Part II: Element Properties
  • One type of information you will find about your element is the element’s various chemical and physical properties. List the properties in a table on the back of your element card.
  • Required Properties: atomic number, average atomic mass, ions the element forms (if any), isotopes and percent abundance, state of matter in nature, color, and whether it is a metal, non-metal, or semi-metal.
  • Optional Properties: boiling point, melting point, electron configuration, texture, brittle/ductile, conductor of electricity and/or heat, insulator; radioactivity; reactivity with acids, bases, oxygen, metals; alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, etc.; any other relevant properties.
introduction to element project3
Introduction to Element Project
  • Part III: History / Uses of the Element
  • In this portion of the project, you will research man’s relationship to the element. This portion of the project is a written report. Your report must be at least one page typed. Here, you may include facts about the discovery of the element.
  • What person/people discovered it? Where and when was it discovered? In what country? Is there a story behind the identification or discovery of the element?
  • You should also include information about how humans interact with the element.
  • Where is the element found in nature? Is it found in ores or minerals? Is it found in the sea or in the air? Do certain plants or animals have high concentrations of this element? What processes must we perform to acquire samples of the element? What is the element used for?
note on the periodic table
Note on the Periodic Table
  • “groups” are columns
  • “periods” are rows
element project today in class
Element Project: Today in Class…
  • You will receive your element assignment.
  • Read and take notes on the portion of your textbook about your element’s group.
  • Complete your Element Card.
element assignments
Element Assignments
  • Saydy G. -- Phosphorous
  • Rumaldo G. -- Arsenic
  • Emeline L. -- Oxygen
  • Kevin L. -- Sulfur
  • Rudy M. -- Flourine
  • Denise M. -- Chlorine
  • Ana Q. -- Helium
  • Zamir R. -- Neon
  • Christian R. -- Argon
  • Alejandra R. -- Gold
  • Anthony S. -- Silver
  • Jesus S. -- Iron
  • Bernabe T. --Platinum
  • Ivan Z. -- Mercury
  • Nancy Z. -- Zinc
  • Edgardo A. -- Hydrogen
  • Jackeline A. -- Lithium
  • Jay A. -- Sodium
  • Eduardo A. -- Potassium
  • Yvette A. -- Beryllium
  • Paola A. -- Magnesium
  • Tania C. -- Boron
  • Susan C. – Aluminum
  • Melody C. -- Plutonium
  • Brandell C. -- Carbon
  • Anthony C. -- Silicon
  • Karen C. – Nitrogen
  • Luis V. -- Radium
reading assignment
Reading Assignment
  • Everyone: Read pp. 124 “The Main-Group Elements”
  • Alkali Metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs): pp. 125 & 128 “Most Elements are Metals”
  • Alkaline Earth Metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra): pp. 126 “The Alkaline Earth Metals” & 128 “Most Elements are Metals”
  • Halogens (F, Cl, Br, I, At): pp. 126 – 127 “The Halogens”
  • Noble Gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn): pp. 127 “The Noble Gases”
  • Hydrogen (H): pp. 128
  • Transition Metals (Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pt, Au, Hg, Ag, Sn, Pb): pp. 128 - 129
periodic table websites
Periodic Table Websites
  • http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/
  • http://www.chemicalelements.com/index.html
  • http://www.webelements.com/pictures.html