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Analysis & Synthesis. The Vocoder and its related technology. (Extremely) Simplified Model of Speech Production. Periodic source. voiced. Filters. Coupling. Speech. unvoiced. Noise source. (Slightly less) Simplified Model of Speech Production. pitch. Impulse train. V/uv bit.

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analysis synthesis

Analysis & Synthesis

The Vocoder and its related technology

extremely simplified model of speech production
(Extremely) Simplified Model of Speech Production

Periodic

source

voiced

Filters

Coupling

Speech

unvoiced

Noise

source

slightly less simplified model of speech production
(Slightly less) Simplified Model of Speech Production

pitch

Impulse

train

V/uv bit

Glottal

model

Filter spec

voiced

Gain v

Coupling

x

Filters

Speech

Gain u

x

unvoiced

Noise

source

slide8

Glottal Waveform Caricature

Glottis closed

(decoupled)

Glottis open

(nonlinear)

vocoders vocal tract synthesis
Vocoders: vocal tract synthesis
  • Short time spectral synthesis
  • Linear predictive synthesis
  • Cepstral synthesis
  • Formant synthesis
vocoders vocal tract analysis
Vocoders: vocal tract analysis
  • Short time spectral analysis
  • Linear predictive analysis
  • Cepstral analysis
  • Formant analysis
vocoders vocal source analysis
Vocoders: vocal source analysis
  • Pitch detection
  • Voiced/unvoiced decision
formant analysis
Formant Analysis
  • Peak picking from smoothed spectrum
  • Root-finding from LPC polynomial - finding second-order sections
  • In general, position more important than bandwidth
  • Deterministic or statistical analysis to find best formant “track”
slide21

Ed Lee Vocoder Page

http://ptolemy.eecs.berkeley.edu/~eal/audio/vocoder.html

slide22

Linux Vocoder Page

http://www.sirlab.de/linux/descr_vocoder.html