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Biology is the science that focuses on life

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Biology is the science that focuses on life

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  1. Biology is the science that focuses on life

  2. (b) Evolutionary adaptation (a) Order (c) Response to the environment (e) Energy processing (d) Regulation (f) Growth and development (g) Reproduction Some properties of life

  3. Eleven Themes that Unify Biology

  4. EUKARYOTIC CELL PROKARYOTIC CELL DNA (no nucleus) Membrane Membrane Cytoplasm Organelles 1 µm Nucleus (contains DNA) Eleven Themes #1 The Cell Contrasting eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells in size and complexity

  5. #1 The Cell A lung cell from a newt divides into two smaller cells that will grow and divide again 25 µm

  6. Nucleus DNA Cell A C Nucleotide T A T A C C G T A G T A (a) DNA double helix. This model shows each atom in a segment of DNA. Made up of two long chains of building blocks called nucleotides, a DNA molecule takes the three-dimensional form of a double helix. (b) Single strand of DNA. These geometric shapes and letters are simple symbols for the nucleotides in a small section of one chain of a DNA molecule. Genetic information is encoded in specific sequences of the four types of nucleotides (their names are abbreviated here as A, T, C, and G). #2 Heritable Information DNA: The genetic material

  7. Inherited DNA directs development of an organism Sperm cell Nuclei containing DNA Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embyro’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Egg cell Offspring with traits inherited from both parents

  8. #3 Emergent Properties Exploring Levels of Biological Organization 1 µm 8Cells Cell 9Organelles Atoms 10Molecules 7Tissues 10 µm 50 µm 6Organs and organ systems

  9. 2 Ecosystems 3 Communities 4 Populations 5 Organisms #3 Emergent Properties Exploring Levels of Biological Organization 1 The biosphere

  10. Outer membrane and cell surface CELL Cytoplasm Nucleus #3 Emergent Properties A systems map of interactions between proteins in a cell

  11. A A Negative feedback Enzyme 1 Enzyme 1 B B Enzyme 2 C C Enzyme 3 D D D D D D D D D D D #4 Regulation Negative feedback

  12. W W Enzyme 4 Enzyme 4 Positivefeedback X X Enzyme 5 Enzyme 5 Y Y Enzyme 6 Enzyme 6 Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z #4 Regulation Positive feedback

  13. #5 Interaction with the Environment Energy flow through an ecosystem Sunlight Ecosystem Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms) Heat Chemical energy Consumers (including animals) Heat

  14. #6 Energy and Life Energy issues and usage Heat Chemical energy

  15. #7 Unity and Diversity Drawers of diversity

  16. #7 Unity and Diversity in the orchid family

  17. 15 µm 1.0 µm Cilia of Paramecium.The cilia of Parameciumpropel the cell throughpond water. 5 µm Cross section of cilium, as viewed with an electron microscope Cilia of windpipe cells. The cells that line the human windpipe are equipped with cilia that help keep the lungs clean by moving a film of debris-trapping mucus upward. #7 Unity and Diversity An example of unity underlying the diversity of life: the architecture of cilia in eukaryotes

  18. Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Ursusameri- canus (American black bear) Ursus Ursidae Carnivora Mammalia Chordata Animalia Eukarya #7 Unity and Diversity Classification

  19. #7 Unity and Diversity Life’s Three Domains Kingdom Plantae consists of multicellular eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to food. Bacteria are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes, and are now divided among multiple kingdoms. Each of the rod-shapedstructures in this photo is a bacterial cell. Protists (multiple kingdoms) are unicellular eukaryotes and their relatively simple multicellular relatives. Pictured here is an assortment of protists inhabiting pond water. Scientists are currently debating how to split the protistsinto several kingdoms that better represent evolution and diversity. 4 µm 100 µm Kindom Fungi is defined in part by thenutritional mode of its members, suchas this mushroom, which absorbs nutrients after decomposing organic material. Kindom Animalia consists of multicellular eukaryotes thatingest other organisms. Many of the prokaryotes known as archaea live in Earth‘s extreme environments, such as salty lakes and boiling hot springs. Domain Archaea includes multiple kingdoms. The photoshows a colony composed of many cells. 0.5 µm

  20. #8 Evolution Charles Darwin in 1859, the year he published The Origin of Species

  21. #8 Evolution Summary of natural selection Population of organisms Overproduction and struggle for existence Hereditary variations Differences in reproductive success Evolution of adaptations in the population

  22. #8 Evolution Natural selection 1 Populations with varied inherited traits 2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits. 3 Reproduction of survivors. 4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success.

  23. #9 Structure and Function

  24. #9 Structure and Function Digging into the past

  25. Observations Questions Hypothesis # 1:Dead batteries Hypothesis # 2:Burnt-out bulb Prediction: Replacing bulb will fix problem Prediction: Replacing batteries will fix problem Test prediction Test prediction Test falsifies hypothesis Test does not falsify hypothesis #10 Scientific Inquiry A campground example of hypothesis-based inquiry

  26. #11 Science, Technology and Society - information science

  27. #11 Science, Technology and Society DNA technology and crime scene investigation

  28. #11 Science, Technology and Society Science as a social process