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No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Supplemental Educational Services (SES) Debate of SES Effectiveness: Do District Run SES Programs Make an Impact on Student Achievement?. By Tracy Alberry. What are SES Services?.

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by tracy alberry

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Supplemental Educational Services (SES) Debate of SES Effectiveness: Do District Run SES Programs Make an Impact on Student Achievement?

By Tracy Alberry

what are ses services
What are SES Services?
  • SES services are tutoring services provided to students attending a school in year 2 or above of Program Improvement.
  • SES provides after school interventions for low income students to increase academic achievement in reading, language arts, and mathematics.
what are ses services1
What are SES Services?
  • SES services provide a per pupil rate that school districts must pay per student to a tutoring company of the students choice who then provides SES services/tutoring. (RUSD must pay $1244.00 per student to a SES provider offering tutoring services)
  • When more students request services than the school district can fund, priority is placed on serving students who are the lowest achieving.
who are ses providers
Who are SES Providers?
  • Nonprofit organizations
  • For profit corporations
  • School districts

* School districts who act as SES providers, operate their SES programs separate from the school district. School District SES programs have their own budgets and financial accounts and would be open to any student, including students outside the school district.

which schools must offer ses
Which schools must offer SES?
  • Schools in Year 2 and above of Program Improvement must offer SES Service.

Year 2 Program Improvement schools are schools which receive Title I funds and have not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for three consecutive years.

What is AYP?

understanding ayp
Understanding AYP

The federal law requires schools, districts, and the state as a whole to demonstrate adequate yearly progress (AYP) in English/language arts and math. To do this, student test results are matched to Annual Measurable Objectives (AMOs) based on proficiency levels. That is, the state sets annual targets for how many students must test proficient or above in all groups and subgroups in order to make AYP.

For the 2006-07 testing cycle, the AMO targets were:

to meet ayp
To Meet AYP

Additional Criteria That Must be Met

  • API (over 590 or 1 point growth)
  • Graduation Rate (high schools only)

RUSD has 46 AMO targets including

participation rates, district Academic Performance Index (API), graduation rate, % proficient in ELA and math.


MISSING AMO 2 Years in a row puts a school into Year 1 Program Improvement.Missing AMO 3 years in a row puts schools and districts into Year 2 Program Improvement.All schools in Year 2 Program Improvement (PI) or above must offer SES.* A school must meet their AMO 2 years in a row to exit PI Status

in 2006 2007 rusd became an ses provider
In 2006-2007 RUSD became an SES Provider
  • During the 2006-2007 School year RUSD was an SES provider and offered SES services to their schools in Year 2 of Program Improvement or above.
  • This was in addition to the SES Services Provided by outside tutoring companies such as Oxford Tutoring.
current research from literature review
Current Research (from Literature Review)
  • 2002-2003 marked the first year schools in Program Improvement (PI) status Year 2 were required to offer SES. California County Superintendents Educational Services Association (CCSESA) published a special issue of the California Curriculum News Report on No Child Left Behind Supplemental Services and Choice in February of 2004 containing articles on SES
  • Complete version is not currently available online, but I would be happy to email it to you.
california curriculum news report
California Curriculum News Report

In the report, according to Carol Brush (2004) a notable specialist on SES, her “district believes that the supplemental services program can assist students to attain state standards” (p. 3).

the cps high school supplemental education services ses tutoring program study
The CPS High School Supplemental Education Services (SES) TutoringProgram study
  • Is the evaluation of the 3rd year of SES programs in the Chicago Public School district.
  • Put together by the Chicago Public Schools (2007)
  • The study examined the 2005-2006 academic year, 55,600 students across 324 schools.
  • Standardized Tests data was used to gauge student achievement.
  • A small increase was seen in Reading but only a negligible gain in math.

(Office of Research, Evaluation, and Accountability; Office of Extended Learning Opportunities, 2007, p. 2)

federal guidelines put states in charge of monitoring ses program effectiveness
Federal guidelines put states in charge of monitoring SES program effectiveness
  • According to the Electronic Education Report, “Thirty-eight states report they are unable to monitor the quality and effectiveness of supplemental education service providers, most often because they have insufficient staff and inadequate funding to do so, according to a study released this month by the Center on Education Policy,” (Bowker, 2007, p.7).
ses guide
  • Department of Education, United States of America. (2005, June 13). No Child Left Behind, Supplemental Educational Services Non-Regulatory Guidance. Retrieved March 5, 2008 from
  • Includes all NCLB guidelines for SES
  • Answers many SES questions
  • Is the SES regulatory guide for School Districts
hypotheses 1
Hypotheses #1
  • It was predicted that students at a given Elementary school in grades 3 to 6 of the 2006-2007 school year, attending District run RUSD Academy for more than 20 hours of SES tutoring, would demonstrate a positive effect of SES by scoring higher on the 2007 ELA CST as compared to the 2006 ELA CST than students from the same school not attending SES tutoring.
  • Students with less than 20 hours of tutoring were excluded from the study.

HA = StutoredELACSTscores > SnottutoredELACSTscores

hypothesis 2
Hypothesis #2

Do the hours tutored predict 2007 CST scores above and beyond the variance explained by the 2006 CST scores?

  • Students in grades There were 377 students total at the school with 23 of those students receiving tutoring.
  • Students who did not have both 2006 and 2007 ELA CST scores were removed from the analysis.
  • This left 291 students.
  • Because of outliers additional students were removed leaving 289 students, with 20 students receiving tutoring.
  • There were 21 out of 291 students who received 20 or more hours of tutoring.
  • Changes in scores were determined as a separate variable
  • Outliers were removed leaving
  • An independent t-test
  • Hierarchal regression were run.
unequal sample sizes in groups
Unequal Sample Sizes in Groups

Out of the 291 students, only 21 had 20 or more hours of tutoring.

Once outliers were removed there were 289 sets of student scores examined, with 20 receiving tutoring.


Independent Samples t-Test

the t test showed positive associations
The t-test showed positive associations.
  • An Independent samples t-test was used to compare means of students who received tutoring,
  • labeled “Y” for yes, compared to those that did not receive tutoring,
  • label “N” for no tutoring.
  • The results indicate the two groups differed on their change in ELA scores, with students who received tutoring demonstrating greater gains (t (287) = 1.89, p = .03)
  • This supported the hypothesis #1

HA = StutoredELACSTscores > SnottutoredELACSTscores

hierarchal regression did not show that hours tutored predicted 2007 ela cst student scores
Hierarchal Regression did not show that hours tutored predicted 2007 ELA CST student scores
  • There was a significant gain in mean scores according to the t-test for students who received 20 or more hours of tutoring.
  • Future studies may consider grouping students based on point increases to determine exactly how many students increased or decreased their scores.
  • Means by themselves do not show how many students increased or decreased.
  • According to the Hierarchal Regression hours tutored does NOT predict an increase in student ELA CST scores.
  • When one examines the mean scores though, students with 20 hours or more of tutoring did increase their scores by an average of 14 points whereas those with less than 20 hours had no mean increase in scores.
  • The Hierarchal Regression may not have shown the ability to predict performance because of the small sample size of only 20 students participating in 20 or more hours of tutoring.
  • Further research with larger sample sizes is needed.
  • It is difficult to show associations between an effect and an outcome when students may be receiving outside effects.
  • Had the data shown there was an effect on CST scores by tutoring there would have been the question of, were there outside effects at work here?
  • Overall, this study showed the difficulty in showing the association between ELA CST scores and hours tutored.
  • The expectation that 2007 ELA CST scores would increase with hours tutored was shown in the independent t-test.
  • But, there was no significance for hours tutored when 2006 CST ELA scores were accounted for in the Hierarchal regression.
  • The study did though show that 2007 scores can be predicted from 2006 scores.
  • This information will help in accounting for variance when studying the effect of hours tutored in future studies.