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Christianization & Heresies. Christianization of the Empire. 313: Edict of Milan by Constantine Legalized Christianity 380—Theodosius I Declared Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire All other religions were outlawed. Christianization of the Empire. Split of Empire:

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christianization of the empire
Christianization of the Empire
  • 313: Edict of Milan by Constantine
    • Legalized Christianity
  • 380—Theodosius I
    • Declared Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
    • All other religions were outlawed
christianization of the empire1
Christianization of the Empire
  • Split of Empire:
    • West
      • Culture and language: Latin
      • Main city: Rome
    • East
      • Cultures: Greek, Syrian, and Coptic
      • Language: Greek
      • Main cities: Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Constantinople
christianization of the empire2
Christianization of the Empire
  • Beginning of Christian societies
  • Shortening of catechumenate
  • Babies baptized
  • Churches replace Pagan temples
  • Veneration of martyrs, saints, and relics
  • Christianization of names/celebrations
    • Ex: Winter Solstice became Christmas
  • Bishop became leader in all aspects of life
arianism
Arianism
  • Arius(d. 336)—priest in Alexandria
  • 4 key views:
      • Father alone is God.
      • Jesus was “made” and has a beginning.
      • Jesus is from nothing.
      • The Son makes the universe, but is not God.
  • Bishop Alexander of Alexandria (d. 339)—tells Arius he must repent.
  • Becomes an international dispute.
arianism1
Arianism
  • Constantine (d. 338) advised to call a council.
  • Council of Nicaea(325) & new creed
      • Jesus is “true God from true God.”
      • Jesus is “begotten, not made.”
      • Jesus is from “the substance of the Father.”—homoousious(consubstantial)
      • Many anathemas against Arius and his beliefs.
  • Arius is exiled, and he disappears. But the real dispute lives on…
arianism2
Arianism
  • Uncomfortable with the word homoousious.
  • 340s-360s: Many new creeds and councils
  • Arians controlled much of the Roman Empire. In 358, there was even an Arian creed passed, which made it illegal to say homoousious.
arianism3
Arianism
  • Athanasius of Alexandria(d. 373)—bishop and defender of Christ as God
    • Sent on 5 exiles!
    • Life of Antony.
    • Deification: Only God can make us God-like. Jesus makes us God-like, therefore Jesus is God.”
  • Eternal Generation—“Jesus is light from light.”
cappadocian fathers
Cappadocian Fathers
  • Gregory of Nyssa (335-394)
  • Gregory of Nazianzus (d. 389)
  • Basil of Caesarea (330-379)
cappadocian fathers2
Cappadocian Fathers
  • The Council of Constantinople (381)
  • Formula: God is 3 persons in one essence. (3 hypostases in one ousia.)
  • Deification by the Holy Spirit.
  • Arguments against them
st ambrose of milan 339 3971
St. Ambrose of Milan (339-397)
  • Monk and later Bishop of Milan
  • Renowned preacher
  • Fights for Church independence
    • Excommunicated Emperor Theodosius
  • Fights Arianism and other heresies
st aurelius augustine of hippo 354 430
St. Aurelius Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
  • Bishop, monk, teacher, & theologian
  • Late conversion in life.
  • He went to hear a speech…the opponent was St. Ambrose.
  • Scenes in the Garden (386) when he hears a child’s voice say, “Take and read.”
st aurelius augustine of hippo 354 4301
St. Aurelius Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
  • Fought numerous heretics: Manicheans, Donatists, Pelagians, & Arians
  • Defends Christianity against the barbarians in The City of God
  • Autobiography of his life and conversion: Confessions
  • Wrote a set of monastic rules
st aurelius augustine of hippo 354 4302
St. Aurelius Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
  • His ideas became the basis of Christianity.
    • One, Holy, catholic
    • Sacraments: Power of Christ
    • Man and woman are equal
    • Grace: As a gift from God
    • Original Sin
humanity of christ
Humanity of Christ
  • Alexandrian view:
    • “Perfect divinity of Christ”
    • Jesus has no human mind
    • The concern
    • Problems with this view
humanity of christ1
Humanity of Christ
  • Antiochene View:
    • “Perfect humanity of Christ”
    • Biblical basis proves Jesus is fully human
    • View: Jesus was man fully possessed by God from birth.
    • Slogan: “Two natures in one person.”
    • Problems with this view
humanity of christ2
Humanity of Christ
  • Antiochene View:
    • John Chrysostom (d. 407)
humanity of christ3
Humanity of Christ
  • Antiochene View:
    • John Chrysostom (d. 407)
      • Preacher & monk
      • “Golden mouthed”
      • Named Patriarch of Constantinople
      • Wrote On the Priesthood
theotokos of mary
Theotokos of Mary
  • St. Cyril of Alexandria(412-444)
      • Christ is a hypostatic union; He is one hypostasis.
  • Council of Ephesus(431)
theotokos of mary1
Theotokos of Mary
  • Council of Chalcedon(451)
    • Pope Leo I (Papacy: 440-461) a.k.a. Leo the Great
      • Tome finds the answer.
      • Fully human AND fully divine
    • Finally Leo’s Tome is approved along with the definition of the Council of Chalcedon.
      • “2 natures…in 1 person”
      • “…one substance” (hypostasis)
      • Mary as Theotokos and respect for the unity of Christ
      • Homoousious with the Father
st eusebius jerome 342 4201
St. (Eusebius) Jerome (342-420)
  • Scholar, historian, & monk
  • Translated the Bible into Latin Vulgate (397)
    • Vulgate became the “official” Bible for the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent (1545-1563)