Education in Sudan is free and compulsory for children aged 6 to 13 years. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by three years of secondary education. The former educational ladder 6 + 3 + 3 was changed in 1990. The present educational ladder was introduced in 1992 as part of a comprehensive reform for general education.
The philosophy behind these 11 years of schooling in three stages of general education was to increase the productive age of the learner and to avoid unnecessary loading and cramming of the curriculum. The loss of one year was compensated for by increasing the working days from 180 to 210 throughout the school ladder from preschool to secondary.
The primary language at all levels is Arabic. Schools are concentrated in urban areas; many in the South and West have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. In 2001 the World Bank estimated that primary enrollment was 46 percent of eligible pupils and 21 percent of secondary students.
The north suffered from shortages of teachers and buildings, but education in the south was even more inadequate and in a much worse situation. • Since World War II the demand for education had exceeded Sudan's education resources. At independence in 1956, education accounted for only 15.5% of the Sudanese budget, to support 1,778 primary schools 108 intermediate schools, and 49 government secondary schools. • Higher education was limited to the University of Khartoum, • except for fewer than 1,000 students • sent abroad by wealthy parents • or on Government scholarships.
When the Nimeiri-led government took power in 1969, it considered the education system insufficient for the needs of social and economic development. Accordingly, an extensive reorganization was proposed, which would eventually make the new six-year elementary education program compulsory and would pay much more attention to technical and vocational education at all levels. By the late 1970s, the government's education system had been largely reorganized. There were some pre-primary schools, mainly in urban areas. The basic system consisted of a six-year curriculum in primary schools and three-year curriculum in junior secondary schools.
During the 1980s, the government established more schools at all levels and with them, more teacher-training schools, although these were never sufficient to provide adequate staff. But the process was incredibly slow and was made slower by limited funds and by the inadequate compensation for staff; teachers who could find a market for their skills elsewhere, including places outside Sudan, did not remain teachers within the Sudanese system. • In the mid-1970s, there were four universities, eleven • colleges, and twenty-three institutes in Sudan. • The universities were in the capital area, and all of the institutions of higher learning were in the Northern • provinces.
Levels of education In Khartoum, the capitals of Sudan, there are four main levels of education.
First: kindergarten and day-care • . It begins in the age of 3-4, consists of 1-2 grades.
Second: elementary school. The first grade pupils enter at the age of 6-7 .and it consists of 8 grades, each year there is more academic efforts and main subjects added plus more school methods improvements. By the 8’Th grade a student is 13–14 years old ready to take the certificate exams and entering high school.
Third: upper second school and high school. At this level the school methods add some main academic subjects such as chemistry, biology, physics, geography, etc... There are three grades in this level. The student’s ages are about 14-15 to 17-18. Higher Education: there are many universities in Sudan such as the University of Khartoum, even foreigners attend universities here, because the reputation of the universities is very good and the life expenses are low compared to other countries. After all, the education system in Sudan went through many changes in the late 1980s and early 1990s
Traditionally, girls’ education was frequently provided by a khalwa, or religious school, in which Quran studies were taught. Such schools did not prepare girls for the learning mainstream, from which they were virtually excluded. Largely through the pioneering work of Sheikh Babar Bari, the government had provided five elementary schools for girls by 1920. Expansion was slow, and it was only in 1940 that the first intermediate school for girls, the Omdurman Girls' Intermediate School, opened. By 1955, ten intermediate schools for girls were in existence. In 1956, the Omdurman Secondary School for Girls, with about 265 students, was the only girls' secondary school operated by the government. By 1960, 245 elementary schools for girls had been established, but only 25 junior secondary or general schools and 2 upper-secondary schools.
There were no vocational schools for girls, just a Nurses' Training College enrolling only eleven students, nursing not being regarded by many Sudanese as a respectable vocation for women. • During the 1960s and 1970s, girls' education made considerable gains under the education reforms that provided 1,086 primary schools, 268 intermediate schools, and 52 vocational schools for girls . • This slow development of girls' education was the product of the country's tradition. Parents of Sudanese girls tended to look upon girls' schools with suspicion if not fear that they would corrupt the morals of their daughters.Moreover, preference was given to sons, who by education could advance themselves in society to the pride and profit of the family.
Higher Education and Development
As stated before, higher education in Sudan had mirrored the different phases of economic and social change in the country. The nature of the Sudanese economy was reflected in the planning of higher education. The financial implications of the economic limbo meant a reduction in technology transfer and staff contacts with the developed world, as well as a severe decline in resources available for staff post-experience training and development which were This aspect is very important in a country like Sudan as resources for fundamental and advanced applied research are scarce even in disciplines such as agriculture and veterinary medicine, the two sectors on which the economy depends. desperately needed in higher education institutions.
Long term changes which could have added value to the economy by upgrading the abilities of the work force were ignored and short term policies prevailed. The improvement of pre-university education and the upgrading of its teaching staff were completely ignored, especially in primary education, with disastrous cascading effects. The current government has announced an ambitious programmed of expansion in higher education. Most of the changes were announced at the end of the higher education conference in March 1990
Some of the well-known universities in Sudan are: • Al Ahfad University for Women • Al Fashir University • Al Neelain University • Al Zaiem Alazhari University • Blue Nile University • Canadian Sudanese University • International University of Africa • Omdurman Ahlia University • Sudan University of Science and Technology • University of Khartoum
The roots of the University of Khartoum (U of K) go back to 1898 when Lord Kitchener of Khartoum proposed founding a college in memory of General Gordon. It is the largest and oldest university in Sudan. Funds for the proposed college were raised by private subscription, and the plans for the building were drawn by the Khedive's architect, Fabricus Pasha.The new college, named the Gordon Memorial College, was officially opened in 1902, although it was not until 1903 that the buildings were completed and the first batch of primary level students were admitted. In 1924 Kitchener School of Medicine was established. The year 1936 witnessed the beginning of higher education in the Sudan with the establishment of the School of Law. By 1940 the College included schools of Agriculture, Arts, Law, Science, Engineering and Veterinary Science. The College was upgraded in 1951 to become Khartoum University College.
Sudan University started as the Khartoum Technical School and School of Commerce. Includes: The School of Radiology, School of Arts, Khartoum Technical Institute, Shambat Institute of Agriculture, Khartoum Senior Trade School, Institute of Music & Drama and the Higher Institute of Physical Education became integral parts of the Khartoum Polytechnic Institute in 1975. The need for higher specialized technical education in Sudan expanded the school into Sudan University of Science and Technology in 1990.
The Ahfad University for Women (AUW) is a private, non-sectarian university for women located in Omdurman, Sudan. Founded in 1966 by Professor Yusuf Bedri with 23 students in one department, Family Sciences, AUW now has over 5,000 students and offers a five-yea Bachelor’s Degree( Bc.S. or BA) in six undergraduate schools and a Master’s Degree in two areas. The goal of AUW is to prepare women to assume informed leadership roles in their families, communities and the nation. AUW works to achieve this goal by offering high quality instruction with emphasis on strengthening women's roles in national and rural development and achieving respect for women in Sudanese society. Includes : The School of Health Sciences ,The School of Psychology and Preschool Education, TheSchool of Management Studies, The School of Medicine The School of Pharmacy.
DONE BY: MONA ALRASHIED LEENA MAGDY MALAZ MOHAMMED SARAH AHMED RABAB AZHARI SHAZA ABDELMONEM MANASIK SALAH