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  1. Chapter One Earth Spheres

  2. Chapter One • DO NOW : Why is planet earth suitable for life? • Observe a visual model of Earth's spheres. Atmosphere Biosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Gases Air N2, O2 Living Plants, Animals Humans Geosphere/Solid Crust & Mantle Rocks & Minerals Water Solid, Liquid, Gas Oceans, lakes Biology Botany Genetics Geology Mineralogy seismology Hydrology Oceanography Meteorology Climatology

  3. Earth Spheres • Can we live without water? • air? • minerals? • Ecosystem: Interaction of Earth’s Spheres Creating a life sustaining environment

  4. Earth Spheres • Lithosphere ( Solid ) Geology • Hydrosphere ( Water ) Hydrology • Atmosphere ( Gases ) Meteorology • Biosphere ( Living ) Biology • Space ( Beyond Earth ) Astronomy

  5. Earth Science • Combination of all sciences that study the Earth’s Spheres.

  6. Hawaii

  7. Critical Thinking Question • Earth’s ecosystem is an example of interaction of the 4 spheres. • How can we describe each of the following also as another examples of this interaction? • Soil, Ocean water, and You • Soil (Lithosphere) + air, water, organisms • Ocean water (hydrosphere) + minerals, air, organisms • You ( Biosphere) + air, water, minerals, organisms

  8. Review Questions • SGCM 1.1

  9. OBSERVATIONS & INFERENCES

  10. What do you assume about this picture?

  11. Galileo & the moon

  12. Observations & Inferencesbased on Earth’s oceans & mountains

  13. First man on the moonNeil Armstrong, July 20th 1969

  14. Scientific Method (OBSERVATION) • OBJECTIVE : QUESTION/PROBLEM ( HOW, WHY, ETC.. ) • RESEARCH: GATHER ALREADY KNOWN FACTS • ( CORRECT/INCORRECT) • HYPOTHESIS: UNTESTED/EDUCATED EXPLANATION BASED ON KNOWN FACTS ( INFERENCE ) ( I THINK , I GUESS, ETC.. ) • EXPERIMENT/TEST : TEST HYPOTHESIS, GATHER & ANALYZE DATA • CONCLUSION: PROVEN RESULTS FROM TESTS ( IT APPEARS THAT, THEREFORE, ETC.. ) • THEORY : Tested and proven hypothesis

  15. ELEMENTS OF AN EXPERIMENT • CONTROL: Unchanged factor(s) VARIABLES: Changed factor(s) in an experiment INDEPENDENT : Factor/condition changed by the experimenter DEPENDENT: Resulted factor/condition caused by the Independent variable.

  16. Charts: Raw Data • Charts are used to organize the data. • Not easy to conclude !!

  17. PIE Graph Measure of %

  18. Line Graph • Change of dependent variable(s) over time or distance

  19. Bar Graph • Comparing data

  20. S.I./METRIC SYSTEM • Why is Metric System better than the U.S. Standard System? • 1 Foot = 12 Inches • 1 Yard = 3 Feet • 1 Mile = 1760 Yards • 1 Pound = 16 Ounces • vs • 1 Centimeter = 10 Millimeters • 1 Meter = 100 Centimeters • 1 Kilometer = 1000 Meters • 1 Kilogram = 1000 Grams • 1 Tonne = 1000 Kilograms

  21. Metric System KILO HECTO DEKA BASIC DECI CENTI MILLI METER/GRAM/LITER Large × 10 ÷ 10 Small Ex. 1Km = cm 1 cm = m 12 g = mg 550 g = Kg 18 L = mL 12 m = Km

  22. Area & Volume • Area = Length × Width a = Unit² b Ex. m² cm² • Volume = Length × Width × Height = Unit³ Ex. m³ cm³ mm³ Irregular shape 1 cm³ = 1 cc= 1 mL liquid volume

  23. Metric Conversions 1. 50 cm = m 2. 50 m = cm 3. 2000 m = Km 4. 2000 cm = Km 5. 15 cm = mm 6. 180 Km = m 7. 550 mm= cm 8. 550 mm= m 9. 15 m = mm 10. 1250 mm= Km

  24. Scientific Notation positive • 24340000 = 2.4 × 10 ⁷ • 23500 = 2.4 × 10 ⁴ negative • 0.2434 = 2.4 × 10 ¯¹ • 0.002432 = 2.4 × 10 ¯³

  25. Review • Metric Mania