Chapter 5 CPR Precautions, Complications, and Special Situations
CPR Performance Mistakes • Rescue breathing mistakes • Failing to ensure adequate head tilt-chin lift • Failing to pinch the nose shut • Failing to give slow breaths • Providing breaths that are too fast or too forceful • Failing to watch the person’s chest rise and fall • Failing to maintain a tight seal around the mouth or barrier device
CPR Performance Mistakes • Chest compression mistakes • Pivoting at knees instead of hips • Using wrong compression site • Bending elbows • Failing to place shoulders above the sternum • Touching your fingers to the chest • Providing quick, stabbing compressions • Failing to allow the chest to fully recoil • Failing to keep your hands in contact with the chest
Precautions During Training • Practice the following on a manikin: • Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation • Chest compressions • Abdominal or chest thrusts • Wash your hands before and after class. • Clean the manikin before using it. • Do not put anything in your mouth when using a manikin.
Disease Precautions During CPR Training • DO NOT use a manikin if you have the following: • Sores on the hands, lips, or face • An upper respiratory infection • Hepatitis infection • HIV or AIDS infection • An infection or recent exposure to an infectious source • Clean the manikin between use.
Disease Precautions During Actual CPR • Use a mouth-to-barrier device. • If you refuse to give rescue breaths, active EMS and give chest compressions until another provider arrives.
Dangerous Complications • Dangerous complications include: • Vomiting • Stomach distention • Inhalation of foreign substances • Chest compression-related injuries • Dentures, loose or broken teeth, or dental appliances
Special Resuscitation Situations:Stroke • Call 9-1-1. • Monitor breathing; if not breathing, begin CPR. • Loosen tight or constricting clothing. • Be prepared to turn the person onto his or her side. • If the person is unresponsive but breathing, place the person on his or her side.
Special Resuscitation Situations:Hypothermia • DO NOT start CPR in the following situations: • The person has been submerged in cold water for more than 1 hour. • The person has obvious fatal injuries. • The person is frozen. • The person’s chest is stiff or compressions are not possible. • Rescuers are exhausted or in danger.
Special Resuscitation Situations:Person in an Avalanche • If the person is unresponsive and not breathing, begin CPR. • Use an AED as soon as available. • DO NOT attempt resuscitation in a person buried for 35 minutes or longer with an airway obstructed by snow or ice.
Special Resuscitation Situations:Drowning Person • Give CPR as soon as an unresponsive person is removed from the water. • Rescue breathing can begin in shallow water. • If vomiting occurs during CPR, turn the person onto his or her side. • Stop CPR after 30 minutes unless the person is hypothermic.
Special Resuscitation Situations:Person Struck by Lightning • When multiple people are struck at the same time, rescuers should give highest priority to people who are unresponsive and not breathing. • Use an AED as soon as available.