Kennedy’s Presidency - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kennedy’s Presidency

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  1. Kennedy’s Presidency Communism and the Cuban Missile Crisis

  2. Election 1960 • Controversy • Televised debates • Young and optimistic • Catholic • One of the closest elections in history • “Ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.”

  3. Space Race • Soviets ahead in technological advances • 1st to orbit earth • Sputnik • Push for U.S. competition • Apollo • “One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

  4. Berlin Wall • Flood of Germans pouring into West Berlin • Krushchev demands America leave Berlin Kennedy refuses • Wall built blocking movement between 2 sides of the city. • Visible symbol of Cold War

  5. Bay of Pigs Invasion • Castro president • Seeks aid from Soviets • U.S. tries to train Cuban exiles to overthrow communist Castro • Attack is failureand embarrassment for U.S.

  6. Cuban Missile Crisis • Soviets aiding Cuba • American spy planes photograph long range missiles in Cuba • Pose dangerous threat to U.S. cities • America is in panic • 3 options seem evident: • Try to resolve diplomatically with Soviets • Create a blockade against the Soviets stopping them from bringing any more weapons • Military action: attack • How should JFK respond to threat of nuclear war?

  7. San Cristobal, Cuba Oct. 15, 1962

  8. MRBM or SS4

  9. IRBM or SS5

  10. Range of missiles

  11. Air strike/invasion of Cuba • The US bombs and invades Cuba • The Soviet Union attacks and takes over West Berlin • NATO (including the US) go to war with the Soviet Union • Both the Soviet Union and the US launch their nuclear missiles against each other

  12. Estimated results of Nuclear War • Each explosion produces a fireball which radiates intense light (flash) for about 10 seconds: all exposed combustible material ignites up to ranges of 2 to 5.5 miles; second degree burns to exposed skin and fires are produced up to 4 to 11.5 miles away. The atmospheric shock wave (blast) from each explosion causes partial or complete destruction of all buildings within 1 to 3 miles and causes moderate damage and 50% injuries or deaths at 3.5 to 9.5 miles in the 10 to 40 seconds following detonation. • Ten hours later, in the U.S. about 110,000,000 people have died altogether. In the U.S.S.R. about 40,000,000 have been killed. • A month later a total of 140,000,000 Americans have died

  13. Diplomacy • Khrushev realizes that he can push the US without the US responding • He decides to test the US further and takes West Berlin • NATO(including the US) declare war • Both the Soviet Union and the US launch their nuclear missiles

  14. Blockade-the actual decision • If you were Khrushev, how would you respond to the US blockade? • Khrushev denounced as act of war • All ships carrying missiles were turned back • Krushevsent a letter to JFK proposing that the USSR would dismantle its missiles in Cuba if the Americans removed their missile installations in Turkey. • Secret communications between both leaders led to a diffusion of the situation.

  15. What Now? • Negotiations • What does the US have to negotiate? • Missiles in Turkey • Remove blockade • Promise not to invade Cuba