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„ Climate Change as Opportunities for Cities—Innovations in Adaptation Policy “. Jo-Ting Huang , Prof. Dr. Edeltraud Guenther . ICREP Conference : Improving energy access through climate finance. University of Twente, The Netherlands, 28 March 2013. Introduction. Literature review.

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climate change as opportunities for cities innovations in adaptation policy

„Climate Change as Opportunities for Cities—Innovations in Adaptation Policy “

Jo-Ting Huang, Prof. Dr. Edeltraud Guenther

ICREP Conference: Improving energy access through climate finance

University of Twente, The Netherlands, 28 March 2013

introduction
Introduction

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literature review
Literature review
  • Climate change adaptation is critical for long-term sustainability for economies, societies, and environments (O’Brien et al, 2012).
  • Relatively small amount of information and literature on adaptation benefits. The current literature mainly addresses the costs of inaction in climate change (Stern, 2007).
  • The lack of positive literature of local adaptation options to provide a positive influence on motivating local economies to address climate change adaptation (Eisenack and Hoffmann, 2012).
  • A wider definition benefits should be also considered, including social and environmental costs and benefits, for instance, job creation, institutional adaptive capacity or ecosystem services (UNFCCC, 2011).
  • First mover advantage addresses that innovation creates competitiveness (Porter, 1995)
  • Definition of adaptation by UNFCCC “an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climate stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits benefit opportunities” (IPCC, 2001).

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slide4

Research questions and Methodology

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questionnaires of cdp cities 2012
Questionnaires of CDP Cities 2012
  • Risks
  • Do current and/or anticipated effects of climate change present significant physical risks to your city?
    • Effects of climate change
  • Opportunities
  • Does climate change present any economic opportunities for your city?
    • If yes, please indicate the opportunities and describe how the city is positioning itself to take advantage of them.
    • Economic opportunity
    • Describe how the city is maximizing this opportunity
    • If not, why not?
  • Please describe any other opportunities (e.g. social or physical) that climate change presents for your city.

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questionnaires of cdp cities 20121
Questionnaires of CDP Cities 2012
  • Adaptation
  • Do you have a plan for increasing your city's resilience to the expected physical effects of climate change?
    • Effects of climate change
    • Actions to reduce vulnerability
    • What is the current status of this initiative as it relates to your city?
    • Which statement best characterizes the type of initiative?
    • Which statement best describes how this initiative is funded or financed?
    • Please describe any other efforts you have undertaken or will undertake to ensure business and operational continuity - for both the city government and the businesses located in your city - in the event of a significant weather-related event.
    • If not, why not?

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sample 65 cities
Sample: 65 Cities

Source: CDP cities 2012

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findings opportunities in cities
Findings: opportunities in cities
  • Risks and opportunities of climate change in cities
  • Finding 1: Among 65 responding cities, 86% of cities confirmed that they have economic opportunities in climate change efforts. 38 Cities presented other climate change opportunities (e.g. social or physical).

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findings climate change opportunities
Findings: Climate change opportunities

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findings relation between economic opportunities and adaptation efforts
Findings: relation between economic opportunities and adaptation efforts

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findings relation between economic opportunities and adaptation efforts1
Findings: relation between economic opportunities and adaptation efforts

Results of set-theoretic method qualitative comparative analysis (crisp-set):

~P~A(X)=~O (5 cases confirmed; 4 cases contradictory)

PA(X)=O (53 cases confirmed; 3 cases contradictory)

What is X?

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slide12

Types of innovation

  • (Source: European Public Sector Innovation Scoreboard (EPSIS) –
  • Methodology report, 2012)

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slide13

Typology of public sector innovation

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  • (Source:Hartley,2006;OECD,2009)
slide14

Policy innovations based on regional innovation system

A

Institutions

Social capital

Stakeholder engagement: scientists, academics,

economists, risk management, insurance,

and legal experts

Animators

Universities, research institutes

Public financial support

Formal rules

Building code,

Bidding rules, municipal plans

Municipal budget, international and national funding

Firms: specialization and concentration of firms and knowledge in the center of the cluster

Supports of businesses to develop nine cluster fields, for example, environmental technology, health, living, well-being, and etc.

Venture capital

Physical infrastructure

Adaptive buildings, floating housing

Project-based adaptation plans

Technological infrastructure

Knowledge infrastructure

Mapping software, future scenario software, green roofs for storm water

Working platform for stakeholders, assessment tools, committees

Incentives

Infrastructure

(adapted from Andersson and Karlsson (2004); Eriksson, 2000)

conclusion
Conclusion
  • In the sample of selected 65 cities:
  • 86% of cities confirmed that they have economic opportunities in climate change efforts. 58% Cities presented other climate change opportunities
  • There is correlation between climate change adaptation efforts and economic opportunities in selected 65 cities.
  • Innovation is a sufficiency condition for cities to obtain economic opportunities.

Further steps:

  • Regression analysis on financial performance of cities
references
References
  • CDP, 2012, Measurement for management - CDP Cities 2012 Global Report - Including special report on C40 Cities.
  • Eisenack, K., Hoffmann, E., A Synthesis of Barriers to Adaptation. 6. Workshop on Social Sciences in Climate Change Adaptation. University of Kassel, Germany. (Presentation)
  • Eriksson, A. (2000), RegionalaInnovationssystem – FrånTeori till Genomförande
  • (Regional Innovation Systems – from theory to accomplishment), Swedish Office of Science and Technology, Stockholm
  • European Public Sector Innovation Scoreboard (EPSIS) – Methodology report, 2012
  • Hartley, J. and J. Benington (2006). Copy and Paste, or Graft and Transplant? Knowledge Sharing Through Inter-Organizational. Public money & management, 26 (2): 101-108
  • IPCC, 2001. Climate change 2001; impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Report of WorkingGroup II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  • Johansson, B., Karlsson, C. & Stough, R.R. (eds.), 2004, The Emerging Digital Economy: Entrepreneurship, Clusters and Policy, Springer-Verlag, Berlin
  • Nauta, F., & Kausbergen, P. (2009). OECD Literature review. Public sector innovation. Lectoraatinnovatie rapport.
  • O’Brien, K., Pelling, M., Patwardhan, A., Hallegatte, S., Maskrey, A., Oki, T., Oswald- Spring, U., Wilbanks, T., Yanda, P.Z., 2012: Toward a sustainable and resilient future.
  • Porter, M.E., van der Linde, C., 1995. Toward a new conception of the environment-competitiveness relationship. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9, 4, pp. 97–118.
  • Stern, N., 2007. The economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge University press.
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 2007. Climate Change: Impacts, Vulnerabilities and Adaptation in Developing Countries. UNFCCC: Bonn.

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slide17

Thank you for your attention!

For more questions: www.tu-dresden.de/wwbwlbu/en

E-Mail: jo-ting.huang@tu-dresden.de

TechnischeUniversität Dresden is validated according to EMAS regulations since January 2003, successful revalidation in December 2006 and in December 2015. Information: http://tu-dresden.de/die_tu_dresden/umweltschutz?set_language=en&cl=en

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