Educational Reforms :. What Have Federal and State Policy Makers Done? -Rosalyn A. Templeton,Karen Huff man and Celia E. Johnson.
Educational Reforms: What Have Federal and State Policy Makers Done? -Rosalyn A. Templeton,Karen Huff man and Celia E. Johnson
In our global society today, reforming education to a 21st century learners is the central theme of our time. Education must develop a productive citizen.
To be a productive citizen he must acquire a deeper understanding of international affairs, science, mathematics and foreign language. He should be an inventive thinker, effective communicator, technologically literate and have high productivity skills.
According to Mike Bottery we should produce students who are knowledgeable in seven types of globalization. Economic Political Cultural Demographic Technological Linguistic Environmental
Economic Globalization - It is defined as the economic integration between countries. It is the most influential globalization. - It can be measured in different ways, from goods and services, labor and capital to technology and education
Political Globalization It involves negotiated interactions between people on state, economic and cultural levels. The results of these interactions affects educators. Teachers are expected to teach the integration of globalness
Cultural Globalization - It can be defined as the extent to which values and ideas influence individuals in other countries. - It revitalized culture and its artifacts through influence, technologies and market economy
Cultural Globalization - It frees people from place bound. - Nations are crossing boarders to share their culinary treats, clothing, music, dance art and movies
Demographic Globalization - demographic statistics like birth rate, fertility rate, life expectancy are some of the issues that has a great influence in the global economic, political and cultural activity
Technological Globalization - It can be described as the increase in the ability to interact and share ideas across the globe because of the technological innovations
Linguistic Globalization - English is now becoming the world’s medium of communication. - It is believed that by 2050, half of the world’s population will be able to communicate with some level of proficiency in English. - Educators are responsible for teaching its formal use and conversational style
Environmental Globalization - Protecting the environment is one of the challenges that that pulls mankind together to find solutions. - It is a prominent topic on the agenda of G8 Summit. - Educators have a responsibility of helping students learn how to become a better protector of our environment.
Australia - Pre- kindergarten at the age of four. K-12 and post school education - Higher education or Vocational - Universal Pre- kindergarten programming and building primary schools for the 21st century. - Increase funding to vocational education.
Australia - - Increase interest to Vocational Education Interest program - Scholarship to students coming from the disadvantage background who wants to study science and math. - Creation of National Teaching Standards for the purpose of improving the preparation of teachers
Brazil Kindergarten ( ages 2-3) Pre-school (ages 4-6) Fundamental Education ( ages 7-14) Intermediate Education ( 3 years) Additional 2 years for those who want to pursue higher education Student must pass the classifying entrance exam Reading Circles Project Science Academy, founded by Fernand Braudel Institute
China Junior Secondary and Senior Secondary education that last for 12 years. First 9 years is compulsory with yearly examination on Chinese language and mathematics. After-school education program Adult Literacy Female Literacy Research on illiteracy eradication strategies
England All children mandatorily start education at the age of 5 Students are required to attend school from ages 5-16 Foundation ( 1 year) age of 4 Key Stage I ( 2 years) Key Stage II ( 4 years) Secondary Education ( 5 years) General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) Higher Education begins at age 18
England - Learning Outside the Classroom ( LOtC ). Adventurous education ( climbing, water sports, trekking, caving) Farming and countryside activity School grounds Arts and creativity Heritage
South Africa General Education ( Grade 0-9 ) Further Education ( Grade 10-12 ) Higher Education Quality Learning and Teaching Campaign Seeks commitment from department officials, teachers, students, parents and communities to be dedicated to creating high quality learning environments.
United States of America Elementary school ( ages 5-11) Middle school ( ages 12-14) Secondary school ( ages 15-18) * Recent reform efforts of US - No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
No Child Left Behind NCLB is a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, it supports standards-based education reform based on the premise that setting high standards and establishing measurable goals can improve individual outcomes in education. The Act requires states to develop assessments in basic skills. States must give these assessments to all students at select grade levels in order to receive federal school funding.
No Child Left Behind It requires all government-run schools receiving federal funding to administer a state-wide standardized test annually to all students. They must make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in test scores (e.g. each year, its fifth graders must do better on standardized tests than the previous year's fifth graders). If the school's results are repeatedly poor, then there must be steps to be taken to improve the schools quality of education.
No Child Left Behind Schools that miss AYP for a second consecutive year are publicly labeled as being "in need of improvement" and are required to develop a two-year improvement plan for the subject that the school is not teaching well. Students are given the option to transfer to a better school within the school district, if any exists.
No Child Left Behind Missing AYP in the third year forces the school to offer free tutoring and other supplemental education services to struggling students. If a school misses its AYP target for a fourth consecutive year, the school is labelled as requiring "corrective action," which might involve wholesale replacement of staff, introduction of a new curriculum, or extending the amount of time students spend in class.
No Child Left Behind A fifth year of failure results in planning to restructure the entire school; the plan is implemented if the school fails to hit its AYP targets for the sixth year in a row. Common options include closing the school, turning the school into a charter school, hiring a private company to run the school, or asking the state office of education to run the school directly.
Impact of NCLB Increase Accountability School choice Improvement of research based practices * ARRA $100B allocated for education to make significant reforms in the 21st century education. This is an opportunity for policy makers in each state to evaluate and design plans that would bring US education into the 21st century
The Bottomline Each country has the great responsibility of educating its people to ensure that they will be able live and work in today’s global society. Success has been defined by many countries as producing technology savvy citizens that can work globally, think critically, solve problems and be innovative
The Bottomline Today developed and developing countries are taking steps at the local and national levels to reform their educational systems. There are various views on how to reform education. Some believes that there are overemphasis on testing, creating a situation where teachers are teaching students how to take exams or known as teaching to the test.
The Bottomline Instead of doing that, we must create a learning environment where students can develop global awareness, practice thinking critically, solve problems and be innovative. Change efforts must begin in a new environment. Redesigning of education should take place not only on traditional classroom or school but also learning can take place outside classroom like via online instruction or community integration.
The Bottomline No matter what the how, the why and the what of reforms may take place one thing is for certain, the government should give so much attention on developing our educational system for the purpose of creating schools for the 21st century learning that will produced a productive 21st century citizen.
Thank You ! Arnel M. Leonardo Ed D. major in Innovative Educational Management Curriculum Development