Struggle for Democracy in Africa Why has Africa struggled in gaining democratic governments?
Ghana 1947-57: • Kwame Nkrumah leads • non-violent movement for • indp in British Gold Coast. • 2)After ind, Nkrumah becomes • President for life, costly • projects & more Pan-African • focus hurts his country Algeria 1954-62: 1)Communist FLN led by Ahmed Ben Bella rebel against French Govt. 2)DeGaullesends in 500K troops but France loses. 3) US backed Islamic rebels overthrow Bella’s gov in 65
Nigeria 1960-1970 1)British give independence to Fulani (majority) 2) Igbo (minority) attempt to form own nation causing a civil war, 1.2 million Nigerians killed Kenya: 1952-1963 1)Mau Mau start revolution against British using guerilla warfare. 2) Kenyan leader Jomo Kenyatta wrongly jailed for starting revolution
Congo 1960-65: 1) MNC win elections, Patrice Lumumba is PM 2) After part of country threatens to secede, Joseph Mobuto overthrows Lumumba govt (has support of US & West) 3) Mobuto rules as dictator, changes country to Zaire Angola: 1960-75 1) Comm. rebels (MPLA) start revolution against Portuguese Gov, rebels win 2) US backs anti-communist group causing a civil war, 500K killed
Uganda: 1) IdiAmin takes power in a coup 2) Aminexpels foreigners & nationalizes businesses. 3) 1971-1979: Kills 300K Rwanda: 1) Tutsi minority rule after independence. 2) Hutu majority wins election in 1994. 3)Hutu army and militia groups kill one million Tutsis South Africa: 1)Dutch Afrikaners (Boers) control Gov 2)Set up Apartheid system that segregates blacks & whites 3) Apartheid ends in 1991, when Nelson Mandela’s ANC wins election