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What makes a plant a plant? Cell wall primarily of cellulose Starch as primary photosynthetic storage product Multicellular with complex specialized tissue development Chl a, Chl b, xanthophylls, carotenoids. Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae.

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domain eukarya kingdom plantae
What makes a plant a plant?

Cell wall primarily of cellulose

Starch as primary photosynthetic storage product

Multicellular with complex specialized tissue development

Chl a, Chl b, xanthophylls, carotenoids

Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae
plant evolution simplified
Radiates from simple to more complex – in both form and environments

Seedless non-vascular

Seedless vascular

Seed producing, vascular

Seed producing, vascular, fruits/flowers

Plant evolution simplified
semi aquatic to more terrestrial
Semi-aquatic to more terrestrial
  • Ancestral “plants”

 transitions to primitive plants

    • Requirements met from aquatic environment
      • Gas, water, light, buoyancy support
  • Complex plants
    • Adapt to two environments
      • Shoot system
      • Root system
plants categorized by structures and lifecycles alternation of generations
Plants: categorized by structures and lifecycles…Alternation of Generations
moss sporophytes and gametophytes
Moss sporophytes and gametophytes

sporophytes

gametophytes

liverwort antheridia
Liverwort antheridia

Antheridiophore

sperm

liverwort archegonia w ova
Liverwort archegonia w/ova

Archegoniophore

ovum

Archegonium

liverwort sporophyte
Liverwort sporophyte

Archegoniophore

gemmae cups cupules
Gemmae cups (cupules)

Gemma cup (cupule)

gemma

hornwort
Hornwort

sporophytes

gametophyte

hornwort 2
Hornwort 2

“Horn –like” Sporophyte

gametophyte

tracheophytes ancestral e g rhyniophyta
Tracheophytes ancestral e.g. Rhyniophyta
  • Ferns and “fern allies”
  • Seedless
  • Vascular plants
    • Xylem composed of Tracheids – tapered porous cells
      • capillary action moderately efficient
  • Sporophyte dominant
lycophyta
Lycophyta

strobila

leaves

lycophyta strobilus
Lycophyta strobilus

microspores

sporophylls

megaspores

lycophyta strobilus 2
Lycophyta strobilus 2

Megaspores

megsporangium

Microspores

sphenophyta
Sphenophyta

strobilus

fern sporangia
Fern sporangia

Spores

Sporangium

Annulus

gametophyte w antheridia
Gametophyte w/antheridia

Gametophyte

(prothallus)

Antheridia

sperm

antheridia w sperm
Antheridia w/sperm

Antheridium

sperm

fern sporangium and prothallus
Fern sporangium and prothallus

Sporophyte

Gametophyte

(prothallus)

seed producing plants
Seed producing plants

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

Sporophyte dominant

Flowering plants

Heterosporous

Mega- and micro-

Small gametophye matures in protected flowers

Female in flower ovary

Male in flower anthers

Animal pollination and some wind-blown

Seeds protected in fruit

Dispersed by animal mostly

  • Sporophyte dominant
  • Conifers & relatives
  • Heterosporous
    • Mega- and micro-
    • Small gametophye matures in protected cones
      • Female in ovulate cones
      • Male in staminate cones
        • Wind blown-pollen
  • Seeds protected in ovulate cone
    • Dispersed by wind, animal, water sometimes
seed ovule to seed
Seed? Ovule to seed
  • Ovule: sporophyte tissue surrounding sporangia
  • Seed coat: protective diploid tissue
  • Embryo: diploid zygote develops to sporophyte
  • Endosperm: nutritive tissue surrounding embryo to feed it until it can photosynthesize on its own
evolutionary importance of seeds
Evolutionary importance of Seeds
  • These plants produce pollen
    • Pollen produces sperm nuclei (no water requrd)
  • Expand over drier habitats
    • Very protective over seasons (dormancy)
  • Endosperm (embryonic food) – headstart
  • Seed dispersal not dependent on water
    • Collected and distributed further
  • Flowering plants…even further in fruits
staminate cone with pollen
Staminate cone with pollen

Pollen grains (microspores or micorgametophytes)

pinus microgametophytes mature pollen grains
Pinus microgametophytes (mature pollen grains)

“Wing”

Tube nucleus

Generative nucleus

pinus ovulate cone
Pinus ovulate cone

megasporophyll

ovule

pinus megasporophyll
Pinus megasporophyll

Megaspore mother cell

Megasporophyll

ovule w megaspore mother cell
Ovule w/megaspore mother cell

Megaspore mother cell

Ovule

pollen tube 2
Pollen tube 2

Ovule (megagametophyte)

pinus seed
Pinus seed

Haploid endosperm (gametophyte tissue)

ginkgo ovules seeds
Ginkgo ovules/seeds

(naked) ovules

(naked) seeds

gnetophyta
Welwitschia mirabilis

found in Angolan desert

“desert onion”

Gnetophyta
angiosperms anthophyta
Angiosperms /Anthophyta
  • Flowering Plants (anth = flower)
  • Seeds in a fruit (angio = container)
  • Double fertilization (see life cycle)
  • Like other pollen producers, is not dependent on water for fertilization
flower structure
Flower structure

(corolla)

(carpel)

(calyx)

slide80

Plants:

  • Monecious
    • Has both sexes
  • Dioecious
    • Separate sexed plants

Flowers:

  • Perfect
  • Imperfect
  • Complete
  • Incomplete
  • Regular
  • Irregular
  • Inflorescences

Inflorescences

dehiscing anther
Dehiscing anther

Pollen grains

lilium ovule
Lilium ovule

ovule

Megagametophyte (embryo sac)

funiculus

dicot seed
Dicot Seed

A= plumule

B= hypocotyl

C = cotyledon

D = testa

E = radicle

E

monocot seed
Monocot seed

Embryo

Testa

Cotyledon

Plumule

Radicle

Endosperm

vascular tissue
Transport water, nutrients and food between roots and shoots

System of xylem and phloem cells

Varied organization in roots & shoots

Vascular tissue
slide93
Tracheids

Primitive vascular plants

Tapered, pits on ends, less capillary action vs. vessel elements

Vessel elements

Less primitive vascular plants

Pits on sides, open ends

Stacked to form long tubes

Advanced capillary action

Transpiration

Roots → shoots → leaves → out

Via: root pressure and diffusion, capillary pressure, negative pressure of evaporation and cohesion

Xylem cells – mature cells that become lignified (thickened 2o cellulose), dies, and perforates from lysosomes
phloem cells living cells that transport sugars sap
Sieve tubes

no nucleus nor organelles

Open sieve plates

Companion cells

Nucleated

Adjoined to sieve tubes via plasmodesmata

Controls sieve tubes; regulates movement

Translocation

Movement of sugars; sources to sinks

leaves → roots, fruits, &/or meristems

Phloem cells – living cells that transport sugars (sap)
plant structure
Apical meristem

Mitotic division

Stem & root tips

Primary growth (length)

Ground meristem

Mitotic division

Ground tissues:

Parenchyma – large; storage

Collenchyma – smaller; flexible support

Schlerenchyma – lignified; rigid support; woody

Cambium

Mitotic secondary growth

e.g. Vascular cambium

e.g. Cork cambium

Plant Structure
leaf bud
Leaf bud

Ground meristem

leaf bud 2
Leaf bud 2

Apical meristem

Ground meristem

Provascular tissue

monocot root dicot root
Vascular bundles centered in roots

Cortex = outer layer

Pith = center tissue

Stele = pith + vascular tissue

Monocot root Dicot root
monocot root 2
Monocot root 2

Parenchyma

Pith (Parenchyma)

monocot root 3
Monocot root 3

Endodermis

dicot root 2
Dicot root 2

Parenchyma

dicot root 3
Dicot root 3

Endodermis and casparian strip

Pericycle

Phloem

Xylem

Vascular cambium

slide103
Vascular bundles

Xylem, phloem, and cambium in between

Scattered throughout monocot stems

Organized around periphery of dicots

Cambium

Mitotic secondary growth

e.g. Vascular cambium

e.g. Cork cambium

monocot stem 2
Monocot stem 2

Sclerenchyma

Outside

Phloem

Sieve element

Companion cell

Xylem vessel

Air space

Inside

dicot stem 2
Dicot stem 2

phloem

sclerenchyma

Vascular cambium

woody stem
Woody stem

Summerwood

Springwood

woody stem 2
Woody stem 2

Cork

Vascular cambium

Phloem

Phloem ray

Xylem

woody stem 3
Woody stem 3

Cork (collenchyma tissue)

Vascular cambium

fruit ripened ovary that protects the seeds
Ripened?

Layers of the ovary = Pericarp

Exocarp

Outer layer /ovarian wall

Mesocarp

Middle layer

Endocarp

Inner/adjacent to ovules

Fruit – ripened ovary that protects the seeds
fleshy fruits
One or more ovarian layer is fleshy

Drupe

Endocarp is hardened; pit or stone

Peaches, nectarines, apricots, etc

Berry

All or most pericarp is fleshy

Grape, tomato, etc

Pepo

Berry with hard thick rind

Melons, pumpkins, etc

Hesperidium

Berry with leathery rind

Citrus

Pome

Swollen receptacle around ovary or core

Apple, pear

Fleshy fruits
dry fruits
Lacks fleshy tissue

Dehiscent fruits

Split along a seam to disperse seeds

Legumes – two seams

Capsules – multiple seams

Bean, pea pods, peanuts, etc

Indehiscent

Do not split on a seam

Achenes, grains, nuts

Corn, wheat, etc

Dry fruits
slide114
Simple fruits

Single ovary of one flower

Aggregate fruits

Many ovaries of one flower

Multiple fruits

Many ovaries of many clustered flowers (inflorescence)

Accessory fruits

Tissue other than ovary ripens (swollen)

what is a coconut fleshy dry other

What is a coconut? Fleshy? Dry? Other?

Drupe: a single fleshy fruit with a hard stone which contains the single seed

plant hormones ch 39 chemical communication and regulation
Plant Hormones (Ch. 39) chemical communication and regulation
  • Auxins
    • Cell elongation
    • Apical dominance
    • Abscission suppression
      • Slows the shedding of leaves, flowers, fruits
    • Fruit maturation
    • Geotropism
      • Phototropism
      • Gravitropism
  • The tips have been removed. No auxin is produced and the shoots do not grow longer.
  • The tips have been covered so light cannot reach them. Auxin is in the same concentration on both sides of the shoots, so they grow longer evenly on both sides.

C. One side of the tips are in more light than the other side. Auxin is in a greater concentration on the shaded side, causing the cells there to grow longer than the cells on the light side.

plant hormones ch 39 chemical communication and regulation117
Plant Hormones (Ch. 39) chemical communication and regulation
  • Giberellins
    • GA or Giberellic acid
    • Growth
      • Release some buds and seeds from dormancy
      • Dwarf plants lack GA
        • Spray on grapes = bigger grapes
      • Stem elongation
        • Spray on dwarf plants = taller plants
      • Related to flowering in some plants

Sold as common bio-fertilizer

plant hormones ch 39 chemical communication and regulation118
Plant Hormones (Ch. 39) chemical communication and regulation
  • Cytokinins
    • Cell division
    • Stimulate bud growth
    • Stimulates fruit & embryo development
    • Prevents leaf senescence
      • Slows aging to decay

With & without

plant hormones ch 39 chemical communication and regulation119
Plant Hormones (Ch. 39) chemical communication and regulation
  • Abscisic Acid
    • General growth inhibitor
    • Induces dormancy
      • Wintering of buds and leaves
    • Closure of stomata
  • Ethylene
    • Gaseous hormone
    • Plays role in fruit ripening
    • Fruit abscission
      • (shedding)
    • One of the reasons why ripe bananas will “ripen” other fruits