No one can cheat you out of ultimate success but yourselves -------- Emerson 除了你自己以外，没有人能哄骗你离开最后的成功。 --------爱默生
Unit 5 Meeting your ancestors
Group discussion: 1.What does an archaeologist do? 2.What is archaeology? 3. Why do you think archaeology is so important?
What does an archaeologist do? excavate (挖掘） collect examine identify
What is archaeology? Archaeology is the study of cultures of our ancestors by examining and identifying the remaining objects found in the ground during an excavation.
Why do you think archaeology is so important? Archaeology is of most importance for learning about prehistoric societies, when there are no written records for historians to study, making up over 99% of total human history, from the old stone age until the advent of literacy in any given society. Archaeology has various different goals,which range from studying human evolution to cultural evolution and understanding culture history.The discipline involves survey, excavation（挖掘） and eventually analysisof data collected to learn more about the past.
Group discussion: Identify the objects on page 37. *What is the object? *What is it used for? *What are modern alternatives?
A clay lamp This is a lamp made of clay, used to light up the house. The alternative we use today is the electric light.
A musical instrument This is a musical instrument which was played when a person hit the bronze or brass bells.Different notes could be made by making the bells larger or smaller.
A stone axe This tool is made of jade stone which is hard and very beautiful. It had a sharp edge so it could be used to break other pieces of stone. The hole on the top of the tool shows where it was joined to a wooden handle, so it could be used like an axe today.
A death mark This is a mask which was placed over the pharaoh’s face after he died. They were made of gold and decorated in beautiful colours.
Zhoukoudian Site--Beijing Peking man
How much do you know about Zhoukou Dian Caves? . It is on the Longgu Mountain, Fangshan District, Beijing. It is famous for Peking Man, a complete skull (头盖骨)of an ape-man(猿人) dating back 600,000 years.
Introduction Zhoukoudian Caves were formally on the “World Heritage List” in December 1987. In the 1920s archaeologists discovered a complete skull of an ape-man dating back 600,000 years. It was later named Peking Man. Stone tools and evidence of Peking Man’s use of fire were later found on the mountain. Studies have shown that Peking man walked on his feet and lives between 700,000 to 200,000 years ago. People of that time lived in caves and survived by hunting. The fact that the Peking Man Site is on the World Heritage List confirms the exceptional and universal value of the cultural site, which requires protection for the benefit of all humanity. The site is therefore not only of China, but also of the world as a whole.
. Reading A Visit to the Zhoukoudian Caves
What objects are mentioned in the text? Skimming necklace needle clothes fire cave
Read the text and answer the questions : 1.Why have the English students come to the Zhoukoudian caves? 2.Where did early people live? what did they use for doors? 3.How did they keep warm? 4.What did they eat? 5. How did they make clothes? 6.What can we learn from the necklace they wore?
Read the text and answer the questions on page 39. 1.Why have the English students come to the Zhoukoudian caves? 2.Where did early people live? what did they use for doors? The students wants to find out about how early people lived. There are no such sites in England while the Zhoukoudian caves provide an excellent example of a site where early People lived. Early people lived in caves. The archaeologist thinks they may have used animal skins.
3.How did they keep warm? 4.What did they eat? They used fur from animals for clothes and had fires burning all winter. They ate animal meat, such as tigers and bears, and fish from the lake nearby.They also picked fruit when it was ripe.
5.How did they make clothes? Clothing skins They wear clothes made from animal _______. They used __________stone tools to____ ___ the animals and_______ their skin. Then smaller________ were used to clean the fat and meat from the skin. Later, They would ____an ______ amount of salt inside the skin to make it _____. Finally, they would cut it and ______the pieces together. On the whole, it is quite a difficult and ______ task. sharpened cut up remove scrapers rub ample soft sew messy
6.What can we learn about the necklace they wore? Some of the necklace beads were made of animal _______ but some were made of ______, which tell us that all the fields around here used to be part of________________. Perhaps there was _____ between early people or they traveled to the seaside on their journeys. shells bones a large shallow lake trade
Post- reading Three ways in which the life of our ancestors differs from our own: Homes: Tools: Dress: caves, perhaps with skins to keep out the cold scrapers, axe-heads, bone needles animal skins sewn together with needles and thread, necklaces
*带领…参观 *做….是件很愉快/惬意的事情 *意识到… *不好意思打搅一下. *有理由认定…, 认定…是合情理的 *不顾寒冷 *生火 *把…吓跑 *让火一直烧着 *在寒冷的冬天 时御寒 *最多 *证据表明… *把…切碎 *大量的… *既难又脏的活 *原始的项链 *讲究外貌 *保存完好 *分析表明…
*带领…参观 *做….是件很愉快/惬意的事情 *意识到… *不好意思打搅一下. *有理由认定…, 认定…是合情理的 *不顾寒冷 *生火 *把…吓跑 *让火一直烧着 show… around It’s a great pleasure to do… be aware of / that I’m sorry to interrupt you but… It is reasonable to assume that regardless of cold make fire scare… away keep the fire burning
keep out the cold during freezing winter at most The evidence suggests… cut up an ample amount of salt a difficult and messy task a primitive necklace care about one’s appearance be well preserved as the analyses shows, … *在寒冷的冬天 时御寒 *最多 *证据表明… *把…切碎 *大量的… *既难又脏的活 *原始的项链 *讲究外貌 *保存完好 *分析表明…
1. alternative n．something that you can choose to do or use instead of something else 替换物 There are some alternatives to our plan. 有几种方案可以代替我们的计划。 He had no alternative but to go there alone. (=have no choice but to do …) 他别无选择, 只好一个人去那儿。 Caught in the act, he had no alternative but to confess. 他被当场抓住, 除了招供别无出路。
2.You mustbe aware that it’s here that we found evidence of some of the earliest people (who lived in this part of the world.) aware adj． 我们必须清楚地认识到吸烟的危险性。 We must be aware of the danger of smoking. We must be aware that smoking is dangerous.
They couldn’t have mats, blankets or quilts like we do. It must have been very uncomfortable. 对现在或将来事实推测，用 “must be”。 You must be hungry after a long walk． 对正发生或进行的事进行推测, 用“must be doing” The light is on. He must be doing his homework now 对过去的事进行推测, 用“must have done” The ground is wet. It must have rained last night.
didn’t 1. He must have arrived here last night, _______he? 2. He must have arrived here, ______he? hasn’t 此时, 应注意反意疑问句的构成。如果句中有表示过去 的时间状语, 反意疑问句用“didn’t+主语”; 如果句 中无表示过去的时间状语, 反义疑问句用 “haven’t/hasn’t+主语”。
4. So we think it is reasonable to assume they lived in these caves, regardless of the cold． assume vt. 假定,设想 科学家设想月球上没有动物。 The scientists assume that there are no animals on the moon． 普遍认为，压力是工作过重所致。 It is generally assumed that stress is caused by too much work.
regardless of prep. 1. 不管困难有多大, 他还是继续对北京人的研究工作。 He went on with his research on Peking man, regardless of the difficulty． 2. 他不顾危险登上了塔顶。 He climbed to the top of the tower regardless of the danger. 3 All applications received by the closing date will be considered equally, regardless of ______________________ (他们何时被收到). when they are received without being affected by different situations, problems.
…rub an ample amount of salt inside the skin to make it soft enough. Here “ample” means ________________________________________. enough abundant adequate sufficient • You have ample opportunities to use English in daily life. • There is ample evidence to prove that he is guilty. supply _________ ample _________ strength space _________
cut up 切碎 cut down 砍倒 cut in 插话 The farmer ________ the tall tree and then ____it____ into pieces. It’s not polite to _______ when we are talking. cut down cut up cut in
Learning about language excavation identify aware ample regardless of primitive sharpened alternative assumed due
Exercise 2 1.regardless of 2.in spite of 3.because of 4.ahead of 5.on behalf of 6.instead of
Exercise 3 1.Starvation 2 analysis, acute 3.messy, categories 4.cutting up 5.at most 6.centimetres