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Arc Hydro: GIS for Water Resources

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  1. Arc Hydro: GIS for Water Resources David R. Maidment, University of Texas at Austin • Why should the Corps of Engineers be interested in Arc Hydro? • Watershed planning • Reservoir operations • Flood damage reduction • Ecosystem restoration

  2. Hydrologic Modeling Hydrologic Information System Arc Hydro Geodatabase

  3. 1996 Texas Drought • George W. Bush, (then Governor of Texas) asked: “Tell me how much water we have, how much water we’re using and how much water we need” • State water officials did not have adequate answers

  4. Texas Water Planning • 1997 Texas Legislature passed Senate Bill 1 which provided for • State-wide geospatial data development (topography, hydrography, land use, soils and orthophotos) • Water planning in 14 regions rather than state-wide • Assessment of water availability for all water permits

  5. Hydrologic Cataloging Units (HUCS) Hydrologic Unit Code = 12100203 Guadalupe Basin (4 HUC’s) • 2015 HUC’s cover continental US • average area ~ 1 county

  6. Stream Gauge (14) Water Diversion (440) Water Availability in the Guadalupe Basin Estimate water availability at each legally permitted water diversion point based on “naturalized” flow at stream gages and the effects of other permitted diversions

  7. Digital Elevation Model San Marcos basin National Elevation Dataset 30m x 30m cells 11,000,000 cells to cover San Marcos basin 70,000,000 cells to cover Guadalupe basin

  8. Drainage Area Delineated from the Digital Elevation Model Arc Hydro attribute DrainArea

  9. Ad Af Qd = Qf Estimating Naturalized Flow at Diversion Points Naturalized flow record at stream gage (50 years of monthly flows) Qf Af Qd Estimated flow record at diversion point Ad

  10. Length Downstream Flow distance (D to F) = Length Downstream (D) – Length Downstream (F) Length Downstream (F) F D D Seepage losses F Length Downstream (D) Arc Hydro attribute LengthDown

  11. Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) 50 year series of naturalized monthly flows at stream gages Hydrologic Modeling GIS data for each diversion point Water Availability Modeling Letter to each water permit owner specifying % of permitted flow available during a drought Completed for ~ 10,000 water permit holders, 1998-2002

  12. Water Availability Assessment (completed for ~ 10,000 permit holders, 1998-2001) Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission Hydrologic modeling by engineering consultants Letter to each water permit owner specifying % of permitted flow available during a drought Geospatial data development by Center for Research in Water Resources, Univ. of Texas

  13. Arc Hydro data model design completed and published on web ( Arc Hydro book in production at ESRI Press Arc Hydro toolset v. 1.0 in beta testing Accomplishments

  14. CD-ROM at back of book Arc Hydro UML diagrams, Repository, Example Geodatabases, Toolset, Tutorials

  15. Arc Hydro Toolset Ver 1.0 Provides tools for processing raster and vector data and populating the attributes of the Arc Hydro data model

  16. Bringing together these two communities by using a common geospatial data model CRWR GIS CRWR GIS in Water Resources Consortium Water Resources

  17. Drainage System Hydro Network Flow Time Time Series Hydro Features Channel System ArcGIS Hydro Data Model

  18. ArcGIS Hydro Data Model Hydrology Hydrography

  19. Data Model Based on Inventory Streams Drainage Areas Hydrography Channels Terrain Surfaces Rainfall Response Digital Orthophotos

  20. Data Model Based on Behavior Follow a drop of water from where it falls on the land, to the stream, and all the way to the ocean.

  21. Integrating Data Inventory using a Behavioral Model Relationships between objects linked by tracing path of water movement

  22. Arc Hydro Framework Input Data Watersheds Waterbody Streams HydroPoints

  23. Arc Hydro Framework

  24. Arc Hydro Framework Dataset for the Guadalupe Basin

  25. HydroNetwork through Canyon Lake Flowlines through water body Generic Junction (for topological connection of edges)

  26. HydroJunction has Waterbody Relationship

  27. Scales of representation of Drainage Systems Basins – drainage areas for water resources management Watersheds – subdivision of Basin for a particular hydrologic purpose Catchments – subdivision of Basin into elementary drainage areas by physical rules Digital Elevation Model – land surface terrain grid cells

  28. Watersheds of the Guadalupe Basin NWS forecast Watersheds (flooding) Guadalupe HydroNetwork EPA TMDL Segments (water quality) TNRCC water availability points (water supply)

  29. Catchments, DrainageLines and DrainagePoints

  30. EDNA – Elevation Derivatives for National Application

  31. Catchments Subdivided at Watershed Outlet

  32. Regional Analysis HydroNetwork to provide connectivity of flow through large regions Digital elevation model for terrain analysis within basins

  33. Michael Schultz NWS River Forecast Center Fort Worth, Texas 1998 Guadalupe Flood

  34. Cross-Sections developed using HEC-GeoRAS and National Elevation Dataset

  35. Hydrologic simulation Using NWS Fldwav model

  36. Guadalupe Network Study area only 1.4 km!

  37. Study Area (Guadalupe river near Seguin, TX) 1/2 meter Digital Ortho Photography

  38. Boat setup for data collection

  39. Accoustic Doppler Current Profiler Provides full profiles of water velocity and direction in the ocean, rivers, and lakes. Also used for discharge, scour and river bed topography.

  40. Depth Sounder (Echo Sounder) The electronic depth sounder operates in a similar way to radar It sends out an electronic pulse which echoes back from the bed. The echo is timed electronically and transposed into a reading of the depth of water.

  41. Differential GPS: Bank to Boat GPS gives the location of each point collected in terms of latitude and longitude. Two locations for differential GPS.

  42. Channel Data Each point has (x,y,z)

  43. Interpolation Points are interpolated in ArcMap to produce a continuous surface.

  44. FishNet (2D) FishNet is generated in ArcMap using FishNet tool in ArcGIS.

  45. 3D Visualization in ArcScene

  46. Centerline Define the centerline such that it joins the center of flow (area) at each cross section.