Artificial Intelligence 10-1-11
Artificial Intelligence • Artificial Intelligence (Book Def.) – The study of computer systems that model and apply the intelligence of the human mind • Used to develop software and machines that emulate human qualities such as learning, reasoning, communicating, seeing, and hearing • Areas include • Expert systems • Natural language processing • Neural networks • Intelligent agents • Virtual reality and simulation devices • Pattern recognition • Fuzzy logic • Robotics
Has a Eye Color ID Person Instance of Is a Has a Has a Instance of Dorm Gender Student 234-576 Brown Instance of Instance of Instance of Instance of John Eye color Lives in Gender Sims Male Knowledge Representation • Semantic network: A knowledge representation technique that represents the relations between objects. It is a directed or undirected graph consisting of vertices, which represent concepts, and edges.
Depth-First Search Breadth-First Search Search Trees • Search tree: A structure that represent alternatives in various situations such as game playing
Breadth First vs. Depth First Search Depth First Breadth First
Breadth First vs. Depth First Search Which type of search would return the result the fastest for: M? K? D? G?
Expert Systems • Three components of an expert system • Knowledge base • An expert system’s database of knowledge about a particular subject • Inference engine • The software that controls the search of the expert system’s knowledge base and produces conclusions • User interface • The display screen the user used to interact with the expert system
Artificial Intelligence • Natural language processing • Allows users to interact with a system using normal language. • Voice recognition – recognizing human words • Language comprehension – interpreting human communication • Voice synthesis – recreating human speech • Challenges of natural language processing? • Intelligent agents • A form of software with built-in intelligence that monitors work patterns, asks questions, and performs work tasks on your behalf • Pattern recognition • Involves software that identify recurring patterns and maps the pattern against patterns stored in a database
Artificial Intelligence • Fuzzy logic • A method of dealing with imprecise data and uncertainty, with problems that have many answers rather than one • Virtual reality • A computer-generated artificial reality that projects a person into a sensation of 3-D space • Often used with simulators to represent the behavior of physical or abstract systems
Background of Robotics • Idea of artificial people dates all the way back to Greek Mythology • One of the first recorded designs was by Da Vinci • What Classifies a Robot? Experts Say: • Artificially created • Reacting to external environment • Can manipulate environment • Is programmable • Can Move
What Are Robots Used For? • Right now Robots are used for • Entertainment • Car Production • Jobs Too Dangerous for Humans • Vacuum Cleaner (Like from the commercial) • Companionship to Humans (Aibo) • Many other things
What Could Robots Be Used For? • Future Plans for Robotics include: • Assistance to the Elderly or Disabled • Medical Field • Space • Personal Service Robots
Science Fiction and Robotics • Isaac Asimov • Three Laws of Robotics: • A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm • A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law • A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
Can Robots act Ethically? • Serious Questions Must be Raised
Decisions, Decisions • Computers have algorithms and strict rules to guide action • Human Decisions • Not based on rules alone • Also judgment and conscience • If a robot could think ethically, whose ethics would it follow?
Robotics • The development and study of machines that can perform work that is normally done by people • Subsumption architecture • Commonly found in manufacturing plants and also in situations where people would be in danger • Nuclear plants • Assembly lines, especially paint lines • Checking for land mines • Fighting oil-well fires
Robotics • Two main Categories of Robots • Fixed – stay put, generally have one specific task things around it move (assembly line) • Mobile – move about and interact with the environment around it. • Mobile Robotics - the study of robots that move relative to their environment • Sense-Plan-Act (SPA) paradigm – steps of a mobile robot completing some action. • (SENSING -> WORLD MODELING -> PLANNING -> CONTROL -> EXECUTION) • Sensing – sensor data input some knowledge from the outside world • World Modeling – interprets and models the input from sensing • Planning - Interpreted model is used generate a plan of action • Control – Robot’s control system (the hardware) is used to carry out the plan. • Execution – Plan carried out through execution • Main challenge of SPA Paradigm – new sensory data comes in so fast and must be processed so fast that it is extremely difficult to use.
Weak & Strong AI • Weak vs. Strong A.I. • Weak A.I. claims computers can be programmed to simulate human cognition • Strong A.I. claims that computers can think on a level that is equal to or better than humans, and can also achieve consciousness • Cyc approach to strong A.I. • A database in Austin, TX that holds 1.4 million basic truths • Plan is that Cyc will automatically make human-like assumptions • Hope is that Cyc will learn on its own • Cog approach to strong A.I. • MIT project that is a humanoid robot • Tries to identify and search for patterns instead of following rules and facts
Testing Intelligence • Test for Human Intelligence • In 1950, Allen Turing predicted computers would be able to mimic human thinking • The Turing test determines whether the machine is human • Judge is in another location and doesn’t see the computer • If the computer can fool the judge, it is said to be intelligent • Weak equivalence: The equality of two systems based on the results • Strong equivalence: The equality of two systems based on their results and the process by which the results were reached
Turing Test • Interrogator (C) must determine which respondent is a computer and which is human.