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Geo-Synthetics Specifications for Railway Sector. Rajesh Agarwal, Director, RDSO. RDSO – Research Design & Standard Organization Only R & D organization of IR Deals from Track formation to Bridges to Coaches to signal to OHE Made specifications of products for Railway Use

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slide2
RDSO – Research Design & Standard Organization
  • Only R & D organization of IR
  • Deals from Track formation to Bridges to Coaches to signal to OHE
  • Made specifications of products for Railway Use
  • Latest Achievements includes
    • AC Double Decker Coach
    • 4500 HP Hotel load locomotive
    • Video Surveillances for running train
    • Designing of Track including formation for HAL
geotechnical directorate
Geotechnical Directorate

Deals with R & D of soil mechanics – for the use of Railways in

Formations

Cuttings

Ground improvement

RE wall constructions ( ROB )

introduction
Introduction

Geosynthetics :Generally Polymer based - Polypropylene, Polyester, PVC, Polyamide, Polyethylene

Various types of Geosynthetics can be used in Railways

Geotextiles

Geogrids

Geonets

Geocell

Geomembranes

Geocomposites

Prefabricated Vertical Drains (Band Drains)

functions of geosynthetics
Functions of Geosynthetics

Geo-synthetics can perform one or several functions to improve mechanical or hydraulic behaviour of the Railway Formations (Base structure)

The basic functions performed by geo-synthetics are:

Separation

Filtration

Drainage

Reinforcement

Barrier

Basal Layer

scope for use of geosynthetics
Scope for use of geosynthetics

Vision 2020

New Lines -- 25000 km route expansion

DFC- Western & Eastern Corridor

Double/Multiple lines – 30000 Kms

need for use of geo synthetics
Need for Use of Geo-Synthetics

Existing Lines

  • Indian Railways is upgrading infrastructure to meet future demand of growing traffic.
  • Geosynthetics can also be used in rehabilitation/strengthening of existing weak formation of length about 700 kms PR & 2000km TSR.
scope for use of geosynthetics11
Scope for use of geosynthetics

ROB/RUB

Road Over Bridge ( 600 ROB constructed per year)

slide12

Steep Slope Construction ( Non Railway Loading)

  • Construction of high banks on soft soil (PVD)
  • Erosion control of slope
  • Protection against rock falls
  • ROB for Road Loading
slide15

Typical Cross Section of Embankment with Prefabricated Vertical Band Drains

Sand Blanket

Initial Embankment

Band drains

Soft Clay Layer

Firm Soil

15

slide16

Track Bed Design

  • Reinforced Earth Embankment (Railway Loading )
  • Formation Rehabilitation
specifications and scope for use of geo synthetics in world railways
Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways

European Railways (UIC)

Code 719 R

New Construction

Geotextiles between blanket and prepared subgrade if prepared subgrade has fines more than 15%

Existing Track

Geotextiles and geogrids for Formation Rehabilitation

specifications and scope for use of geo synthetics in world railways21
Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways

European Railways (UIC)

Code 719 R

New Construction

Geotextiles between blanket and prepared subgrade if prepared subgrade has fines more than 15%

Existing Track

Geotextiles and geogrids for Formation Rehabilitation

specifications and scope for use of geo synthetics in world railways22
Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways

American Railways

AREMA Manual Part 10

New Construction

Geotextiles between Ballast & sub-ballast

Geotextiles beneath sub-ballast

Erosion Control on slopes

Existing Track

For Formation Rehabilitation

specifications and scope for use of geo synthetics in world railways23
Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics in World Railways

Australian Railways

Reconditioning Guidelines RTS3430

Existing Track

Geotextiles and Geogrids for Formation Rehabilitation

specifications and scope for use of geo synthetics
Specifications and scope for use of geo-synthetics

Indian Railways (specific to railway use)

Jute geotextiles ( for erosion control) Issued

Geo-grids under trial

Geotextiles (beneath track & slope protection) under preparation

jute geo textile
Jute Geo-Textile

Guidelines for application of Jute Geo-textile in Railway Embankment & Hill slopes issued for erosion control.

Guidelines no. RDSO/2007/GE : G-0008

use of is of geo synthetics by ir
Use of IS of geo-synthetics by IR

Geo Jute

All properties is to be checked with IS codes

use of is of geo synthetics by ir27
Use of IS of geo-synthetics by IR

Geo Grid

All properties is to be checked with IS codes

use of is of geo synthetics by ir28
Use of IS of geo-synthetics by IR

Geo Textiles

All properties is to be checked with IS codes

slide29

Geo-grid in IR

  • Biaxial geo-grid has been used in South Central Railway, Northern Railway (Polypropylene – strength 30 kN/m with aperture size of 61mm x 61mm) has been used for formation rehabilitation/strengthening.
  • Observations in field at SCR & NR have indicated improvement of overall track performance after the application of Geo-grid.
geo grid geo textile on ir
Geo-grid+Geo-textile on IR

For low density routes, geotextile along with sand layer and brick soling has been used in Sitamarhi – Darbangha project, ECR.

  • NF Railway also tried use of Geo-grid (Polyester based – knitted & coated with strength of 40 kN/m & aperture size of 25mmx25mm) in combination of geo-textile and sand layer for formation rehabilitation.
  • The performance report of the trial section of NF Railway is satisfactory.
geo grids
Geo-grids
  • Field trials for formation rehabilitation Geo-grid in SCR
  • Issues involved for optimum benefit
  • Aperture size ( As per ballast size if IR)
  • Junction strength (As per Axle load)
  • Material type (As per Soil/Atmospheric condition)
slide32

Geo-grids

40X40 mm to 60X60 mm aperture size are not available for trial.

These sizes may be provided/manufactured.

Scope- Early Rehabilitation of approx. 2000 km track.

slide37

Specification of woven geo-textile

Geotechnical Engg./RDSO

slide38

Reinforced Earth Design for Railway Loading

  • By KRCL in USBRL Projects
    • Bridge no 40 at Riasi
    • Bank of 16m to 56 m high
    • Design Approved by IIT/D
  • Cost effective (whether or not)
general issues
General Issues
  • Specification- Generic in nature
    • To avoid monopoly
    • Material to be readily available (Time constraint)
  • Cost effective
    • Should be competitive with Alternates
    • Research with Blending of Jute with PP etc. being explored by Railways
issues concern
Issues concern
  • Testing facilities
    • Contracts to be awarded division wise & to be passed by divisional authorities
    • How testing of material to be monitored
  • Works contract/Supply contract
    • Railway prefers works contract
slide44

Application of Geo-syntheticis

  • Analysis of behavior of different Geo-synthetics to be used in Railway Formations
    • Validation through Lab model,
    • FEM model
    • And site measurements etc.
    • Draft Guidelines For Geo-synthetics Prepared & under active discussion with in Railway
slide46

Other Use Of Geosyntheticis in IR

  • Different Zonal Railways may be use the Geosynthetic on their railway as per requirement and site conditions such as:
  • Steep Slope Construction, Embankment Slip repairs, Construction of high banks on soft soil (PVD), Erosion control of slope And Protection against rock falls etc.
slide47

Formation treatment with blanket & geotextile by formation rehabilitation m/c

  • The limitations of Indian railways
  • The formation rehabilitation m/c very costly
  • Line Block Requirement - 6 to 8 Hrs.
  • (Very difficult for running track)
  • Progress very slow- 300 to 400 m per day
  • Geotextile life is very short 4 -5 years, Indian Railway want long life such as 10 to 15 years.
  • Cost effectiveness - Cost consideration not match
slide48

QUALITY ASSURANCE & QUALITY CONTROL PLAN FOR GEOSYNTHETICS

  • The manufacturer must have in house integrated testing facilities for all the tests as per specifications to be carried out on the product. The testing facilities may be more for Geosynthetics in India.
  • The Railway Authorities may witness the tests carried out at independent testing facilities.
conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • Geo-synthetics can be used effectively in railway application for track bed stabilization, track drainage, erosion control, interface protection, construction over soft soil, steep slope construction, mud pumping, etc.
  • Its use is a necessity and cost effective for construction of new formations & rehabilitate / strengthen the existing formations for running of heavy axle loads.
  • The specifications of Geosynthetics items specially Geogrid for railway application are in evolving stage worldwide.
  • IR has gained some experience and RDSO has framed provisional specifications. These should be tried as per site conditions.
  • Extended Field trials are necessary to validate & assess specifications of geogrids for track bed strengthening.
need for use of geo synthetics50
Need for Use of Geo-Synthetics

New Constructions

  • To construct ‘Dedicated Freight Corridors i.e. Eastern Corridor & Western Corridor’ & ‘High Speed Corridors to connect the major cities.’
  • This requires construction of new stable track formations suitable for heavy axle loads.
  • It is difficult to adopt the present practice in DFC & High speed which will increase the maintenance cycles. Hence Railway formation should be design using geo-synthetics.
specification of geo grid
Specification of Geo-grid

Note: 1. Test method is only indicative which give procedure. However values will govern as specified above.

2. Long term strength of geogrid with due consideration of creep effect is important as geogrid is supposed to remain under track for long period say 20 years or more.

3. MD stands for Main Direction & CD stands for Cross Direction.

Geotechnical Engg./RDSO