Linguistics, Pragmatics & Natural Grammar. Chen Lin Beijing Foreign Studies University. I The Trend. 1. The branches, or disciplines, under the general title of LINGUISTICS as a science: 1) General Linguistics Theoretical Linguistics Applied Linguistics.
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Beijing Foreign Studies University
1) General Linguistics
Lexicon / Lexicology
Phonology / Phonetics
Semantics / Morphology
Stylistics / Rhetoric
The study of the use of language in communication, particularly the relationship between sentences and the contexts and situation in which they are used.
a. How the interpretation and use of UTTERANCES depends on knowledge of the real world
b. How speakers use and understand SPEECH ACTS
c. how the structure of sentences is influenced by the relationship between the speaker and the hearer.
1. More emphasis tends to be put on Applied Linguistics
2. While different scholars continue to pursue their studies in different individual disciplines each in his own way, many are trying to coordinate the studies of the various disciplines for the one general purpose of improving the way languages are taught, that is, teaching methodology.
Grammar is the description of the structure of a language and the way in which linguistic units such as words and phrases are combined to produce sentences in the language.
“Learners would do well to learn the common words of the language very thoroughly, because they carry the main patterns of the language.”
1. for + N(noun, or NP, noun phrase)
This talk is for teachers.
2. for + NP (period of time)
I’ve talked for half an hour.
3. for + -ing
I use PPT for explaining my points.
4. verb+ NP + for +-ing
I don’t blame you for not understanding me.
5. For +NP + to-infinitive
The talk is for you to comment.
6. Be +adj. + for + N + to-infinitive
The talk might be difficult for the students to understand.
7. NP + for + NP + to-infinitive
There’s no need for you to agree with me.
1. Phrasal verbs: arrange for, ask for, bargain for, care for, fall for, long for, look for, plan for, prepare for, provide for, settle for, etc.
2. Nouns frequently followed by for: time, room, soace, need, desire, hope, chance, opportunity, reason, purpose, case, argument, plan, arrangement, search, cure,use, etc.
3. Adjectives often followed by for: good, bad, suitable, ready, famous, sorry, responsible, thankful,useful, late, right, wrong, hard, difficult, easy, dangerous, usual, unusual, possible, etc.
for ages, for long, for now, be all for, for all, but for, as for, for the time being, for God’s sake, what for (for what)? etc.