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Information pragmatics A Natural Language Processing Approach . Christopher Manning CSLI IAP meeting November 2000 http://nlp.stanford.edu/~manning/. The problem. When people see web pages, they understand their meaning
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CSLI IAP meeting
<TITLE>Ford Motor Company - Home Page</title>
<META NAME="Keywords" CONTENT="cars, automobiles, trucks, SUV, mazda, volvo, lincoln, mercury, jaguar, aston martin, ford">
<META NAME="description" CONTENT="Ford Motor Company corporate home page">
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<TR><TD WIDTH=768 ALIGN=CENTER> <A HREF="default.asp?pageid=473" onmouseover="logoOver('fordscript');rolloverText('ht0')" onmouseout="logoOut('fordscript');rolloverText('ht0')"><img border="0" src="images/homepage/fordscript.gif" ALT="Learn more about Ford Motor Company" WIDTH="521" HEIGHT="39"></A><br>
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The answer, it is suggested, is ontologies
– Dave Winer (reacting to similar conclusions of Jakob Nielsen)
“Anyone familiar with AI must realize that the study of knowledge representation—at least as it applies to the “commensense” knowledge required for reading typical texts such as newspapers—is not going anywhere fast. This subfield of AI has become notorious for the production of countless non-monotonic logics and almost as many logics of knowledge and belief, and none of the work shows any obvious application to actual knowledge-representation problems. Indeed, the only person who has had the courage to actually try to create large knowledge bases full of commonsense knowledge, Doug Lenat …, is believed by everyone save himself to be failing in his attempt.” (Charniak 1993:xvii–xviii)
pragmaticrelating to matters of fact or practical affairs often to the exclusion of intellectual or artistic matters
pragmatics linguistics concerned with the relationship of the meaning of sentences to their meaning in the environment in which they occur
People use words that aren’t in the dictionary.
Their listeners understand them.
People will introduce new products when they’re ready, not when some committee has added the terms to an ontology
Ontology: a shared formal conceptualization of a particular domain
Different levels of specialized vocabulary
Ambiguity of reference
Newspaper advertisements rarely contain spec sheets
Intel ad, NYT, 28 Sep 2000
*Data Source: Forrester Research.
Decker et al. IEEE Internet Computing (2000):
But human languages have all these properties, and maintain superior expressivity and interoperability through their flexibility and context dependence
Use language technology to add value to data by:
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What you search for in real estate advertisements:
The story so far: