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What are the Various Approaches to Teaching Syllabic A nalysis ? . Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 9 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties . Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

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what are the various approaches to teaching syllabic a nalysis
What are the Various Approaches to Teaching Syllabic Analysis?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 9 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benedictine University

syllabic analysis
Syllabic Analysis
  • A syllable is a group of letters that forms a pronunciation unit
  • Breaking words into syllables can often help with pronunciation
  • Syllabic Analysis is the act of breaking multi-syllabic words into syllables and then using phonics and analogies to decode the words, syllable by syllable
  • Examples of syllabic analysis are:
    • cul-prit tem-por-ary
    • vic-tor-y neg-a-tive
    • sea-weed bio-de-grad-able

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syllabic analysis1
Syllabic Analysis

Key points about syllables:

  • Every syllable contains a vowel sound
  • Diphthongs are treated as single units
  • A syllable may have more than one vowel letter
  • Open syllables- end in vowel sounds
  • Closed syllables- end in consonant sounds
  • It is not necessary that students break words at exact boundaries.
    • The point is that their analysis helps them to properly pronounce the words

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syllabic analysis2
Syllabic Analysis
  • Decoding multisyllabic words is a common barrier, even for older readers
  • 15-20% of students in the 4th to 8th grade have difficulty with multisyllabic words
  • Potential problems:
    • Students can decode word parts, but can’t incorporate their phonics skills to decode multisyllabic words
    • Students don’t have good word pattern knowledge; they can’t tell where one pattern ends and another begins
    • Students may have an orthographic processing problem; they can’t visualize letter patterns, overly rely on phonics and therefore are slow readers

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syllable patterns
Syllable patterns
  • Can you divide the following words into syllable patterns?
    • Corniculate
      • kawr-nik-yuh-lit
    • Dimercaprol
      • dahy-mer-kap-rawl
    • Elastomer
      • i-las-tuh-mer

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teaching syllabic analysis
Teaching Syllabic Analysis
  • Syllabic analysis = How to break down words
  • Purpose of syllabication:
    • To break down words into smaller, more manageable units and put them back together
  • Two methods (not mutually exclusive):
    • Traditional Rules Approach
    • Pattern Approach
  • Consider what you think the difference between the two approaches might be
  • Then, view the following slides to learn about the two methods

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rules approach
RulesApproach

Steps in the traditional RulesApproach:

  • Clap out syllables in words
  • Have students identify the syllables visually
    • Have the students say the syllables while you point to them
  • Present syllable generalizationswith illustration words (p. 300):
    • Compound words (e.g., bobwhite)
    • Affixes (e.g., sidewinder)
    • Double consonant words (e.g., rabbit)
    • Single consonant words (e.g., tiger)
    • Final le(e.g., turtle)

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pattern approach
Pattern Approach

Steps in the Pattern Approach:

  • Starts with a single-syllable word and shows how multisyllabic words are related to it
  • Steps:
    • Show students a single-syllable word, for example:
      • tie
    • Show students related multisyllabic words (long-i)
      • tiger
      • spider
      • diner
      • miser
    • This is an extension of word building to multi-syllable words
    • Call attention to the pattern being illustrated
    • Guided practice (making words from parts)
  • Major multisyllabic patterns are listed in Table 9.1 (pp. 302-304)
    • The patterns are shown in order of approximate difficulty and frequency of appearance

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comparing approaches
Comparing Approaches
  • After learning the basics about both the “traditional” and the “pattern” approaches, read pages 299-304 in Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties to learn more about them
  • Keep in mind that these approaches can be used in support of each other
  • After you have completed the reading, on the next slide participate in a Large Group Threaded Discussion based on ‘traditional” and “pattern” approaches

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what are the strategies used to decode polysyllabic words
What are the strategies used to decode polysyllabic words?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapters 8 & 9 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benedictine University

students can identify syllables now what
Students can identify Syllables…Now what?
  • There are many strategies that students can be taught to address polysyllabic words…
    • Pronounceable Word Parts
    • Analogy Strategy
    • Generalization Strategy
    • Spot and Dot Strategy
    • Reading by Syllables

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additional syllabic analysis programs
Additional Syllabic Analysis Programs
  • Syllabic Analysis Programs – Click on the links to learn more
    • Benchmark Word Detective (grades 1 – 8)
      • Developed at the Benchmark School in Pennsylvania for students with severe reading disorders
      • The program is 20 minutes each day and has two parts: beginning and intermediate
    • Rewards (Intermediate grade 4-6, Secondary grade 6-12)
      • Short-term intervention for older students who have mastered basic reading of single-syllable phonics, but are still having difficulty with reading multisyllabic words
    • SIPPS Challenge (Systematic Instruction in Phoneme Awareness, Phonics and Sight Words) (grades K-12)
      • Emphasizes multi-syllable words, but reviews single-syllable phonics
      • Utilizes decodable texts written for the program
    • System 44 (grades 3-12)
      • Uses computer technology and texts to build basic decoding skills and fluency, utilizing high-interest selections on content-related topics in order to build background knowledge

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what are strategies for teaching morphemic elements
What are strategies for teaching morphemic elements?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 9 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benedictine University

morphemic structural analysis
Morphemic (Structural) Analysis
  • Morphemic analysis is the study of meaningful word parts such as compound words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes
  • A morpheme is the smallest meaning-bearingunit in a word
    • For example: There are 3 morphemes in untimely(un-time-ly)
  • Morphemic analysis helps low achieving readers recognize hundreds of words
    • Often, low achieving readers recognize less than 20% of prefixes, suffixes and roots
    • Knowing morphemes helps ease the burden on working memory because they can concentrate on one segment at a time, rather than entire words

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teaching morphemic elements
Teaching Morphemic Elements
  • Begin by showing students patterns, such as:
    • Pedal, pedestrian, biped, pedicure, pedometer, podiatrist, tripod, gastropod
  • Teach them a morpheme and then have them determine the meaning of new words
    • Similar to teaching students to analyze word parts to determine how to pronounce a word

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prefixes
Prefixes
  • Teach students to derive the meaning through word analysis
  • Warn students that prefixes can have multiple meanings
  • They must use contextto check meaning
    • Incapable – not capable
    • Inexperience – lack of experience
    • Indifferent – no prefix
  • One way to teach prefixes is to group them by families of meaning
  • See page 313 for possible family groups
  • Common prefixes are listed in Gunning, Table 9.3 – page 312

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suffixes
Suffixes
  • Two types of suffixes are:
    • Inflectional (grammatical endings)
      • -s, -ing, -ed, -en, -er, -est, -ly
    • Derivational (change part of speech or function)
      • -ance, -ary, -ic, -ous
  • Teach suffixes:
    • By stressing application
    • Systematically
  • Show students suffixes in context
  • Teach students how suffixes change the spelling of words
    • Consonant doubling (run – to – runner)
    • yto i (penny – to – penniless)
    • Omit final e (hope – to – hoping)
  • Do not spend a lot of time teaching inflectional suffixes because if students are reading for meaning, they will usually supply the necessary inflectional endings automatically
  • See the “Frequently Occurring Suffixes” list in Gunning, Table 9.4 – page 314

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roots
Roots
  • The most complex of the morphemic elements is the root
  • A root is the part of a word that is left when all the affixes have been removed
  • It may be a word or a portion of a word, such as:
    • helpin helpfulor ceivein receive
  • Common roots are listed in Gunning, Figure 9.5 – page 316

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morphemic elements
Morphemic Elements
  • View the roots and affixes (identified by the State of Illinois) that may be covered on the Illinois state assessment by clicking on the link below:
  • Scroll down to the “Illinois Reading Assessment Framework” for grades 3-8, and click on the PDF document
  • Turn to pages 18-19 to view the roots and affixes
  • After you have quickly read through the the information on pages 18 – 19 turn to the next slide to complete a ‘Short Answer’ on-line activity
  • Click here to access the PDF Document

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how do you teach students to use contextual analysis
How do you teach students to use contextual analysis?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 9 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benedictine University

contextual analysis
Contextual Analysis
  • If students are reading materials at their instructional level, they have a 15% chance of deriving the meaning of words from context
  • Struggling readers have only a 10% chance
    • They often have less background knowledge and know fewer words
    • They often focus on one or two details in the sentence, rather than using all of the clues
  • However, when taught carefully how to use context clues, students can double their ability to recognize unknown words (Jenkins, Matlock, & Slocum, 1989)

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steps for using context
Steps for Using Context
  • Use think-alouds and prompts to help students derive meaning from context, using these steps:
    • Seek clues in the sentence or earlier/later sentences
    • Combine clues
    • Add background knowledge to clues (Construct a possible definition or meaning.)
    • Trial substitutions (Insert a possible word or phrase for the unknown word.)
    • Check the substitute (Does it fit?)
    • Revise (If it doesn’t fit, try another substitute word)

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types of context clues
Types of Context Clues
  • Best results are achieved when students are taught to use context clues
  • Incorporate instruction about the various types of context clues:
    • Definition
    • Synonyms
    • Comparison-Contrast
    • Function Indicators
    • Example
    • Experience/Background
    • Pictorial Clues

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context clues
Context Clues
  • Read pages 319-320 in Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties to learn about the various types of context clues
  • As you read, consider which types your students could identify and for which types they still need instruction
    • After you complete your reading, create a 3-column chart with the type of context clue on the left and an explanation in the middle
    • Then think of an example you could share with your students and write it in the right column
    • This can be shared with your students in order to help them see a variety of context clues (See example below)
    • Bring your Context Clue Chart to Session 7 to debrief

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what is the usefulness of dictionaries in decoding and defining unknown words
What is the usefulness of dictionaries in decoding and defining unknown words?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 9 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benedictine University

dictionaries
Dictionaries
  • Just asking students to look up words in the dictionary is not effective
  • Students must be taught how and when to use the dictionary
  • Teach them how to derive correct meanings:
    • Check definition with context clues
    • Determine the word’s part of speech
    • Use illustrations and word histories in the dictionary
  • Teach them how to read the pronunciation key in the dictionary, building on what the students already know
    • Refer to pages 322-323 in Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficultiesfor instruction ideas
  • Generally, students are not able to handle dictionaries until they are able to read at the third grade level (Halsey & Morris, 1977)
    • You may use picture dictionaries with students below the third grade level

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balanced use of strategies
Balanced Use of Strategies
  • Success depends upon integrationof all the strategies
    • Phonicsand syllabic analyses are required for sounding out words
    • Morphemic analysis and dictionary usage are required when the meanings of words are unknown
    • Context is useful for identifying words that the reader can’t sound out and for deriving meaning
  • Use think-alouds to model how students can integrate the strategies to develop the meaning of unknown words

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what are the stages of word learning
What are the stages of word learning?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 10 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benediticine University

stages of word learning
Stages of Word Learning
  • Dale and O’Rourke (1971) list four stages of word knowledge:

1. I never saw it before

2. I’ve heard of it, but I don’t know what it means

3. I recognize it in context—it has something to do with…

4. I know it

  • Think about the word: “Convergence”
  • At what stage are you in regard to the word “convergence?”

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degrees of word knowledge
Degrees of Word Knowledge
  • Associative-definitional knowledge
    • Student can make an association between a word and a definition
  • Contextual-conceptual knowledge
    • Student understands the key concept that the word represents and how the concept is changed in different contexts
  • Generative knowledge
    • Student can use the word appropriately in speaking or writing
  • Reference page 330 in your Gunning book

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how does vocabulary knowledge affect comprehension
How does vocabulary knowledge affect comprehension?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 10 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benediticine University

word knowledge and comprehension
Word Knowledge and Comprehension
  • “Stahl and Fairbanks (1986) found that average students, if given the right vocabulary instruction before reading a selection, did as well as bright students on a series of comprehension tasks.”
  • Teaching vocabulary to improve comprehension requires:
    • Teaching to contextual-conceptual knowledge
    • Establishing relationships
    • Providing multiple exposures

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example word convergence
Example Word - Convergence

ModelingExperience of the 3 Steps for Teaching Vocabulary Process – Using the word:Convergence

  • Teaching to contextual-conceptual knowledge
    • Convergence- automatic adjustment of the pointing of the eyes in order to maintain clear vision
    • Establishing relationships
    • A group of six pairs of muscles move the eyes so that they focus on the subject
      • I know that converge means to come together.
    • Providing multiple exposures
    • Play with the word
      • Convergence of the eyes is like a plane locking onto a target because…
      • Antonym?

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how can you compare and contrast incidental versus systematic instruction
How can you compare and contrast incidental versus systematic instruction?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 10 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benediticine University

incidental vs systematic instruction
Incidental vs. Systematic Instruction
  • Incidental Instruction
    • Definition: Skills are taught when the need arises
    • Advantage:
      • Apply knowledge immediately and see the purpose
  • Systematic Instruction
    • Definition: Skills are taught on a regular, planned basis
    • Advantages:
      • Vocabulary study given more emphasis
      • Students can learn strategies to foster independent word learning

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what are the key principles of vocabulary instruction
What are the key principles of vocabulary instruction?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 10 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benediticine University

principles of effective vocabulary instruction
Principles of Effective Vocabulary Instruction
  • Establish Goals
  • Build on What Students Know
  • Build Depth and Breadth of Meaning
  • Create an Interest in Words
  • Relate Words to Students’ Lives
  • Promote Independent Word Learning

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selecting words for instruction
Selecting Words for Instruction

Beck, Kucan, and McKeown(2008), divided words into three groups or tiers

  • Tier One (look, see)
    • Familiar, basic words
  • Tier Two (gaze, glance)
    • “Highest utility” words
    • Generally appear in print more than in conversations
  • Tier Three (nutrients, minerals)
    • Technical words from specific content areas

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what are the various techniques for teaching vocabulary
What are the various techniques for teaching vocabulary?

Unless stated otherwise the content of this section is based on Chapter 10 – Gunning, T.G. (2010) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston, MA.: Pearson, Education, Inc.

Benediticine University

vocabulary techniques
Vocabulary Techniques

Before choosing a technique, consider:

  • What is the nature of the word?
    • Abstract, concrete? Common, rare? Multiple meanings?

2. What background will the students bring to this word?

  • Vaguely familiar? Concept familiar? Label? No concept or label?

3. How will the students use this word?

    • Essential to the story? Frequently used word? Merely recognize the word or use it in writing/speaking?

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vocabulary strategy hunt
Vocabulary Strategy Hunt

Vocabulary Activity

Word Sorts

Read-Alouds

Vocabulary Visits

Concept Maps

Creating Personal Contexts

Insult or Compliment?

Choose and Use

Post-Structured Overviews

Create Keywords

  • Brainstorming
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Semantic Mapping
  • Pictorial Maps
  • Semantic Features Analysis
  • Venn Diagrams
  • Possible Sentences
  • Predict-o-Grams
  • Simulations
  • Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy

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additional ways to increase vocabulary
Additional Ways to Increase Vocabulary
  • Wide Reading
    • If reading material at the appropriate level, students have about a 15% chance of deriving meaning of unfamiliar words in context (Swanborn & de Glopper, 1999)
    • Be persistent - Multiple exposures = layers of meaning
  • Reading Aloud to Students
  • Computer-Assisted Instruction
    • Programs or electronic texts can provide pronunciation and definitions
    • Vocabulary games

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want more information about vocabulary instruction
Want More Information About Vocabulary Instruction?

Check out these texts:

  • Building Academic Vocabulary
    • Robert J. Marzano and Debra J. Pickering
  • Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement
    • Robert J. Marzano
  • Inside Words
    • Janet Allen
  • Bringing Words to Life
    • Isabel Beck, Margaret G. McKeown, and Linda Kucan

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