cellular participation in physiology n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Cellular Participation In Physiology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Cellular Participation In Physiology

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 97

Cellular Participation In Physiology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 84 Views
  • Updated on

Cellular Participation In Physiology. Jim Pierce Bi 145a Lecture 3, 2009-2010. Cellular Physiology. There is more to cells than just performing basal functions. Cellular Physiology is the study of how cells perform both basal and tissue specific functions.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Cellular Participation In Physiology


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
  1. Cellular ParticipationIn Physiology Jim Pierce Bi 145a Lecture 3, 2009-2010

  2. Cellular Physiology There is more to cells than just performing basal functions. Cellular Physiology is the study of how cells perform both basal and tissue specific functions. It is the bridge between molecular biology and tissue function.

  3. Cellular Physiology General Cellular Physiology The study of inputs, metabolism, and outputs. Our goal for this lecture is to look at examples of inputs and outputs.

  4. Cellular Physiology Specific Cellular Physiology This is the study of specific aspects of cellular function. Our goal in this lecture is to discuss some of the common functions: membrane function, cellular structure, cellular motors, and secretion.

  5. General Cell Physiology Homeostasis versus Active Function Often, we want to do more than“cruise along” at status quo. This means doing stuff

  6. Homeostasis What is homeostasis? It is central to understanding physiology, and makes metabolism much easier. It is the property of a system to try to maintain constancy in the face of external perturbations.

  7. Homeostasis Regulation When a system maintains some variable despite internal or external perturbation. Control When a force adjusts the output of a system over time. Refrigerator Thermostat Glycogen in a Myocyte

  8. Homeostasis Figuring out the Refrigerator is easy The thermostat controls The “dial” indicates the set point A circuit in the Refrigerator regulates. It compares the actual temperature to the thermostat’s set point It heats or cools accordingly

  9. Refrigerator Cooling

  10. Homeostasis Glycogen is not so easy. What controls glycogen levels? There is no thermostat. The myocyte does not receive a specific “glycogen level signal.”

  11. Homeostasis What controls glycogen levels? There are external signals that inform the myocyte of the state of the body. There are internal signals that inform the myocyte of the state of the cell. The cell must integrate these signals to make that decision.

  12. Homeostasis The way a cell integrates these signals to make that decision is calledA Control Structure

  13. Homeostasis How is glycogen level regulated? Because there is no thermostat,it is not a simple “compare” like the fridge Instead the pathway “pays attention” to every reaction, intermediate, and final product This is called a Regulatory Structure

  14. Homeostasis How is glycogen level regulated? The Regulatory Structure is affected by the Control Structure. It is through those interactions thatthe Regulatory Structure obeys theControl Structure

  15. Homeostasis What makes up these structures? Cells Do Chemistry. (they do physics, too, but I don’t like physics so I won’t talk about it) Chemical Compounds (stuff) Processes Involving Chemical Compounds (a way to change stuff)

  16. Homeostasis Structures are composed of reactions A  B C  D E  F

  17. Metabolism supply demand Xsource --> M --> Xsink (in a nutshell)

  18. Regulatory Network supply demand Xsource --> M --> Xsink (in a nutshell)

  19. Control Network supply demand Xsource --> M --> Xsink (in a nutshell)

  20. Why is this confusing? The final product has the greatest effect on the flux through metabolism So the USE of the final product exerts CONTROL

  21. Regulation versus Control So certain Regulatory structures give“Control” to the end product This is probably why biologists use “regulate” and “control” interchangeably Just remember, like precision and accuracy, control and regulation are different!

  22. Metabolism and its Control So how do we describe these things? We start with a Model of the system

  23. Metabolic Pathway A  B  C  D A set of metabolites and reactions involving those metabolites. (note that a metabolic pathway can be described by graph theory)

  24. Generalized Linear Metabolic Pathway A  B  C  D

  25. Generalized Branched Metabolic Pathway

  26. Generalized Substrate Cycle

  27. Metabolic Network

  28. Control and Regulation We can then describe how any given thing (enzyme, molecule, extrinsic parameter) affects any other given thing This gives a bunch of variables This allows a mathematical model

  29. Control in Dynamical Systems Models That Exist: Linear Systems Linear Models Non-Linear Systems Non-Linear Models Linear Models If you want to learn more Take CDS 101, 110

  30. Metabolism There is more to metabolism than just the graph of the reactions Location of the reactions Cytosolic, Membrane Bound, Nuclear Job in “the bigger picture” Anabolism versus Catabolism

  31. Control by Supply Feedforward Control: 1) Can achieve high control of flux 2) High control of flux forces us to have low control of metabolites! (That means AMPLIFICATION)

  32. Control By Demand Feedback Control 1) Can achieve high control of flux 2) High control of flux forces us to have high control of metabolites!

  33. Metabolic Control Analysis We can prove that: 1) Feedback is the way we get control of both flux and concentration. 2) Feedforward is the way we get control of flux and amplification.

  34. Internal State The first consideration in “doing stuff”is the Internal State of the Cell The set of DNA, RNA, and protein (especially “transcription factors”) Organelles and Compartmentalization Membrane and its Potential Secondary messengers

  35. Internal State Sometimes, the decision to Activateis the Internal State The best studied example is Cell Cycle There is an internal clock(multiple, actually) In many cases, the ticking of the clock alone is the largest stimulus for cell division

  36. Internal State A closely related (and more interesting) example is Early Development Much of the earliest patterning results from internal state Distribution of Bicoid mRNA (Drosophila) Distribution of Vg-1 protein (Xenopus) Random Genetic and Positional Noise(Chick rotates with gravity, Mouse random based on position in ICM) (Bi 182 for more info!)

  37. Internal State Other basal functions include: Basal secretion in glands Basal membrane potential patterns Anabolism and Catabolism for Housekeeping

  38. Internal State In the case of cell cycle,the output includes: Replicating DNA and organelles Nuclear Division Cytosol Division A huge number of checkpoints Lots of error correcting

  39. Internal State In the case of early developmentthe output consists of: Spacial and Temporal Patterningof space (intra and extracellular) Interpreting “Internal state” intoCellular Phenotype

  40. General Cell Physiology Obviously, though, internal state cannot be the only cue! In a complex organism, even making ATP depends on the state of the organism! (a fat cell should never steal glucose from a starving brain cell)

  41. General Cell Physiology Types of Inputs: Small Molecules Neurotransmitters, Steroids, Peptides Non steroid, non peptide hormones

  42. General Cell Physiology Types of Inputs: Large Molecules ICAMs, Selectins, Integrins Lipoproteins Other Immunoglobulins Other Glycoproteins

  43. Small Molecules Why Small Molecules? They are very versatile They can carry information (in both concentration and concentration gradient) They can diffuse or be transported.

  44. Small Molecules Why Small Molecules? They are very efficient The earliest “computation” on small molecules was probably bacterial chemotaxis Food (i.e. reduced molecules) was transduced into swimming behavior

  45. Small Molecules Why Small Molecules? They are very efficient This system can be harnessed by using specific small molecules as a signal Ever notice that many neurotransmitters are decarboxylated amino acids?

  46. Small Molecules Examples of Small Molecules Addition / Integration Two inhibitory cells both release GABA onto the same dendrite, increasing hyperpolarization Each parathyroid cell releases hormone into the blood, and response is a function of “total hormone” levels.

  47. Small Molecules Retention Insulin binds to its receptor and is internalized, providing continued signaling. Degredation Serum Catecholamine-O-Methyl-Transferase has different rates of catecholamine removal than neuronal reuptake machinery

  48. Small Molecules Gradient Retinoic Acid (vitamin A) and HOX genes DPP in certain non-mammal animals Target Autocrine – stimulates self Paracrine – stimulates neighbor Neurocrine – neural synapse Endocrine – stimulates distant cell via blood Neuroendocrine – neural secretion into blood

  49. Large Molecules Why Large Molecules? They can “mark” an area of extracellular space. (i.e. they stay put) They convey information about tissue structure (both cell-cell and cell-ECM).

  50. Large Molecules Consider Neural Crest Cells Early development “encodes” space with a set of small molecules, gradients, and large molecules. Neural crest cells migrate through this space, using the cellular computer to respond to spacial differences