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(1903-1950). Real Name : Eric Blair British Political Novelist Born: To English parents in India. After his father retired, Eric and his family moved back to England. He was sent to boarding school at the age of eight to prepare for Eton , an exclusive prep school.

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Real Name: Eric Blair

British Political Novelist

Born: To English parents in India


He was sent to boarding school at the age of eight to prepare for Eton, an exclusive prep school.

Because he had a scholarship, he was teased and humiliated frequently.



Returned in Europe


He chose to live in poverty

because he felt guilty for

the job he had

done in Burma -

for having been a

part of an oppressive government.


He saw poverty

as a way to

understand the

problems of the

oppressed and helpless

by becoming

one of them.


Orwell was a Socialist

Socialist:someone who believes that the government should own businesses so that everyone will be equal


Two Things That

Influenced Orwell

To Write

Animal Farm:

His hatred for:


Political Lying


He desired a society

in which separate classes

would not exist.


His second

famous book:


It's a Fable

It's an Allegory

Most fables have two levels of meaning. On the surface, the fable is about animals. But on a second level, the animals stand for types of people or ideas. The way the animals interact and the way the plot unfolds says something about the nature of people or the value of ideas. Any type of fiction that has multiple levels of meaning in this way is called an allegory.


It's a Satire

A composition making fun of something, usually political.

Animal Farm makes fun of political society after the Bolshevik Revolution.


Historical Context

Russian society in the early twentieth century had two social classes: a tiny minority (bourgeoisie) controlled the country’s wealth.

The working class was called theproletariat.


Communism arose in Russia when the nation’s workers & peasants rebelled against and overwhelmed the wealthy and powerful class of capitalists & aristocrats.


This was based

on Karl Marx and his


The call for

action was . . .


Tsar Nicholas II,

monarch of Russia,

was forced

to abdicate

the throne.


His daughter,

Anastasia, was



Lenin, a Russian


took power

in the name of





When Lenin died,

Joseph Stalin &

Leon Trotsky

competed for

control of the

Soviet Union.


Trotsky banished

& Stalin

took control.

He began his

brutal killings,

overseeing the

deaths of


twenty million

Soviet citizens.



1. Freedom &

individual dignity

must be guarded

very carefully.



2. Language is a

powerful tool;

used improperly,

it can enslave

and confuse us.



3. Weakness can be

dominated by

strength, fear,

and trickery.



4. Hope & vision

must be kept alive,

or we might

live like the

animals of

Manor Farm.



5. Power corrupts,

and absolute power





Farmer JonesA drunk and a poor farmer,

his cruelty towards the farm animals

inspires their rebellion.

farmer jones czar nicholas ii
Farmer Jones

The irresponsible owner of the farm

Lets his animals starve and beats them with a whip

Sometimes shows random kindness

Czar Nicholas II

Weak Russian leader during the early 1900s

Often cruel and brutal to his subjects

Displays isolated kindess

Farmer Jones = Czar Nicholas II


SnowballA clever pig with a head for ideas,

he becomes one of the main

leaders of Animal Farm and

the author of its central commandments.

snowball leon trotsky

Boar who becomes one of the rebellion’s most valuable leaders.

After drawing complicated plans for the construction of a windmill, he is chased off of the farm forever by Napoleon’s dogs and thereafter used as a scapegoat for the animals’ troubles.

Leon Trotsky

A pure communist leader who was influenced by the teachings of Karl Marx.

He wanted to improve life for people in Russia, but was driven away by Lenin’s KGB.

Snowball = Leon Trotsky


NapoleonA pig with a gift for techniques of control,

he establishes most of the

farm’s rules and eventually

becomes its sole leader.

napoleon joseph stalin

Boar who leads the rebellion against Farmer Jones

After the rebellion’s success, he systematically begins to control all aspects of the farm until he is an undisputed tyrant.

Joseph Stalin

The communist dictator of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953 who killed all who opposed him.

He loved power and used the KGB (secret police) to enforce his ruthless, corrupt antics.

Napoleon = Joseph Stalin


Old Major An elderly show pig whose

instruction to the animals

about "animalism" becomes

the philosophical basis

for the creation of Animal Farm.

Old Major

An old boar whose speech about the evils perpetrated by humans rouses the animals into rebelling.

His philosophy concerning the tyranny of Man is named Animalism.

He teaches the animals the song “Beasts of England”

Dies before revolution

Karl Marx

The inventor of communism

Wants to unite the working class to overthrow the government.

Dies before the Russian Revolution



SquealerA pig with the ability to make any

idea sound reasonable,

he is Napoleon's side-kick

and is in charge of communicating

to the animals.

squealer vs propaganda dept of stalin s government
Squealer vs. Propaganda Dept. of Stalin’s Government


  • Big mouth, talks a lot
  • Convinces animals to believe and follow Napoleon
  • Changes and manipulates the commandments

Propaganda Department

  • Worked for Stalin to support his image
  • Used any lie to convince the people to follow Stalin
  • Benefited from the fact that education was controlled


BoxerA strong and hard-working carthorse,

he shows tremendous

faith in the rebellion and its leaders.

boxer vs dedicated but tricked communist supporters
Boxer vs. Dedicated, but Tricked, Communist Supporters


  • Strong, hard-working horse – believes in Animal Farm
  • “Napoleon is always right”, “I must work harder”
  • Gives his all, is betrayed by Napoleon

Dedicated, but Tricked Supporters

  • People believed Stalin b/c he was “Communist”
  • Many stayed loyal after it was obvious Stalin was a tyrant
  • Betrayed by Stalin who ignored and killed them
the dogs vs kgb secret police
The Dogs vs. KGB (Secret Police)

The Dogs

  • A private army that used fear to force animals to work
  • Killed or intimidated any opponent of Napoleon
  • Another part of Napoleon’s strategy to control animals

KGB (Secret Police)

  • Not really police but forced support for Stalin
  • Used force, often killed entire families for disobedience
  • Totally loyal, part of Stalin’s power, even over army
moses the raven vs religion
Moses the Raven vs. Religion

Moses the Raven

  • Tells animals about SugarCandy mountain
  • Animals can go there if they work hard
  • Snowball and Major were against him
  • They thought Heaven was a lie to make animals work
  • Napoleon let him stay b/c he taught animals to work and not complain


  • Marx said, “Opiate of the people” – A LIE!
  • Used to make people not complain and do their work
  • Religion was tolerated b/c people would work
  • Stalin knew religion would stop violent revolutions
mollie the mare vs vain selfish people in russia and world
Mollie the Mare vs. Vain, selfish people in Russia and world

Mollie the Mare

  • Was vain – loved her beauty and self
  • Didn’t think about the Animal Farm
  • Went with anyone who gave her what she wanted

Vain, selfish Russian people

  • Some people didn’t care about revolution
  • Only thought about themselves
  • Went to other countries that offered more for them
benjamin vs skeptical people in and outside of russia
Benjamin vs. Skeptical people in and outside of Russia


  • Old, wise donkey who is suspicious of revolution
  • Thinks “nothing ever changes” – is RIGHT!
  • His suspicions are true about Boxer and sign changes

Skeptical people

  • Weren’t sure revolution would change anything
  • Realized that a crazy leader can call himself “communist”
  • Knew that Communism wouldn’t work with hungry leaders
animalism communism

Taught by Old Major

No rich, but no poor

Better life for workers

All animals are equal

Everyone owns the farm


Invented by Karl Marx

All people are equal

Government owns everything

People own the government

Animalism = Communism
animal farm revolution russian revolution
Animal Farm Revolution

Was supposed to make life better for all, but . . .

Life was worse at the end.

The leaders became the same as, or worse than the other farmers (humans) they rebelled against.

Russian Revolution

Was supposed to fix the problems created by the Czar, but . . .

Life was even worse after the revolution.

Stalin made the Czar look like a nice guy.

Animal Farm Revolution = Russian Revolution
more characters
More Characters

Pilkington Jones' neighbor, he finds a way to profit from Animal Farm by forming an alliance with the pigs.

MurielA goat who believes in the rebellion, she watches as Animal Farm slips away from its founding principles.

The SheepNot tremendously clever, the sheep remind themselves of the principles of animalism by chanting "four legs good, two legs bad."

characters and their historical correlation
Characters and Their Historical Correlation
  • Muriel: Goat, helps convey the rules/7 commandments
  • Mr. Jones: Manor Farm, Tsar Nicholas II
  • Mr. Frederick: Pinchfield Farm, Hitler/Nazi Germany
  • Mr. Pilkington: Foxwood Farm, Capitalist England/U.S.A.
  • Mr. Whymper: Human Solicitor, ties humans and animals together
  • Jessie and Bluebell/Pups: Dogs, Stalin’s brute force-rep. of Hitler’s brainwashed society
  • Minimus: Poet Pig, Manipulator of History (Songs)