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World War II

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  1. World War II

  2. World War II Causes • The Treaty of Versailles • The Great Depression • German Fascism • The League of Nations • Tests of the League of Nations • Policy of Appeasement

  3. Underlying Causes • The Treaty of Versailles • terms very hard on Germany • reparations • guilt clause • Treaty took away German colonies • Germany wanted them back - Imperialism • made the Germans angry • national pride - Nationalism • desire for revenge

  4. Underlying Causes • The Great Depression • all countries were suffering • more concerned with problems at home • money was spent to maintain life, not prepare for war • The League of Nations • very weak organization • United States, Germany, Russia, Japan not members • unable to enforce policies

  5. Underlying Causes • German Fascism • Policies of Fascism • Extreme nationalism • Racial purity • Aggressiveness means strength • Devotion to the leader • Creation of Scapegoats

  6. Symbols • used by the Fascists to show power • Italian – fasces • rods to show corporal punishment • axe to show capital punishment • Spanish – crossbow and arrows • to show military might • German – swastika • to show racial purity, socialism and nationalism • to instill fear and ‘hypnotise’ • BUT – used for 3000 years before Hitler • often as a religious or good luck symbol • counter-clockwise good luck and clockwise bad luck Footprints of Buddha

  7. Underlying Causes • German Fascism • Political Instability in Germany • Weimar Republic • first elected government in Germany – after WWI • no experience with democracy • many different governments in short time • development of radical parties and ideas • politicians too concerned with own image – not interested in Germany • blamed for signing the ‘hateful’ Treaty of Versailles

  8. Underlying Causes • German Fascism • Economic Instability • 1924 – government unable to pay reparations • Weimar government unable to protect German borders or pride (French occupy the Ruhr Valley) • Reparations caused government to print more and more money • the Mark was worthless – more money was printed • hyper-inflation • caused more distrust and hatred of Weimar government

  9. Underlying Causes • German Fascism – the Rise of Hitler • born in Austria – rejected by the army as unfit • joined German army with good record • back to poverty and obscurity after WWI • joined a group of protesters who were upset about the German government and politics • chosen as leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi Party) • brought in organization, discipline and a clear political platform

  10. Underlying Causes • German Fascism – the Rise of Hitler • attacked the Weimar government as “spineless traitors’ • attacked the hated Treaty of Versailles • promised to tear it apart in all ways and return glory to Germany - Nationalism • promised Aryan Supremacy • get rid of Jews and other “inferior” groups • hated any visible minority (Blacks, southern Europeans, etc.) people with disabilities, homosexuals & others • most attacks on the Jews – already much prejudice • blamed everything on the Jews (loss of WWI, The Treaty of Versailles, hyper-inflation, disease, etc

  11. Underlying Causes • German Fascism – the Rise of Hitler • Nazi party provided a uniform, some food and shelter, and power • many young men joined • Nazi party the only group that fought Communism • accepted by many citizens, politicians, and businessmen • huge increase in election results • by 1933 Nazis held 288/647 seats in parliament (45%) • Hitler ‘offered’ position of Chancellor by the president

  12. Underlying Causes • German Fascism – the Power of Hitler • passed the Enabling Law and the Emergency Decree • got rid of the Weimar Constitution • allowed Hitler to be in complete control – no parliament • elimination of all political parties except the Nazi Party • took over as both President and Chancellor – a dictator • Night of the Long Knives (1934) – murdered any opposition • set up the Gestapo – secret police • anyone couldbe arrested & imprisoned without charges or trial – many Jews and othersimprisoned or killed

  13. German Fascism – the Power of Hitler • “The great masses of the people . . . Will more easily fall victims to a big lie than to a small one.” (Mein Kampf) • “The importance of physical terror against the individual and the masses . . . Became clear to me.” (Mein Kampf) • He alone, who owns the youth, gains the future. • The art of leadership... consists in consolidating the attention of the people against a single adversary and taking care that nothing will split up that attention. • Any alliance whose purpose is not the intention to wage war is senseless and useless. • If you tell a big enough lie and tell it frequently enough, it will be believed.

  14. Underlying Causes • German Fascism – the Power of Hitler • Persecution of the Jews • Nuremburg Laws – 1933 • take away German citizenship for Jews • no marriage between Jews and Aryans • Jews could not practice medicine or law • closing of Jewish stores, confiscation of property • closing of synagogues • removal of all civil and human rights of Jews

  15. Underlying Causes Destruction of Synagogues • German Fascism – the Power of Hitler • Persecution of the Jews • Kristallnacht – the Night of Broken Glass • German official murdered in Paris – Jews blamed • an opportunity to incite Germans to "rise in bloody vengeance against the Jews."(Hitler) • Jewish communities attacked and destroyed • synagogues, homes, businesses destroyed • Jews arrested, beaten, murdered • removal of ALL rights A synagogue burns in Ober Ramstadt during Kristallnacht. Onlookers watch as the local fire department prevents the fire from spreading to nearby houses, but makes no attempt to stop the synagogue from burning.

  16. SS leader Reinhard Heydrich reported 7500 businesses destroyed, 267 synagogues burned (with 177 totally destroyed) and 91 Jews killed. Heydrich requested new decrees barring Jews from any contact with Germans by excluding them from public transportation, schools, even hospitals, essentially forcing them into ghettos or out of the country. Goebbels said the Jews would be made to clean out the debris from burned out synagogues which would then be turned into parking lots. At this meeting it was decided to eliminate Jews entirely from economic life in the Reich by transferring all Jewish property and enterprises to 'Aryans,' with minor compensation given to the Jews in the form of bonds. Regarding the economic impact of the damage from Kristallnacht and the resulting massive insurance claims, Hermann Göering stated the Jews themselves would be billed for the damage and that any insurance money due to them would be confiscated by the State. "I shall close the meeting with these words," said Göering, "German Jewry shall, as punishment for their abominable crimes, et cetera, have to make a contribution for one billion marks. That will work. The swine won't commit another murder. Incidentally, I would like to say that I would not like to be a Jew in Germany."

  17. German Fascism – the Power of Hitler • Persecution of the Jews • removal of ALL rights • Jews arrested, beaten, murdered • Jews could not own ANY business • Jewish children not permitted to attend school • Jews not allowed in any place of public entertainment • Jews could not have driver’s licenses • Jews must wear large Star of David as identification • thousands forced into ghettos and then death camps

  18. German Fascism – the Power of Hitler • German Economic Policies • Hitler took power in worst of the Depression – 1933 • world trade at a standstill • Hitler set out to eliminate unemployment • - to make Germany economically self-sufficient • huge public works projects and re-armament (Militarism) • - provided large numbers of jobs • new highways and housing projects • minimize imports and maximize exports • scientists developed new technology - education

  19. German Fascism – the Power of Hitler • German Foreign Policies • 1936 – Hitler’s goal • to mobilize the army and strengthen the economy • to be totally ready for war in FOUR years • State control of industry, commerce, military, education • to destroy the Treaty of Versailles • to reject the League of Nations • annexation of new territories and expansion to the east • to increase German power and prestige • no concern that this expansion was territory of other countries

  20. German Fascism – the Power of Hitler • German Domestic and Foreign Policies • destruction of Communism • full-scale rearmament for German military supremacy • Lebensraum – Living Space • for ‘pure’ Germans (Aryans) • encouraged Aryan birth rate • women to be devoted to kinder, kirche, kuche • women removed from the work force • Germany to be totally self-sufficient – no foreign trade • trade makes Germany dependant on others • agricultural land and resources must be taken from others

  21. German Fascism – the Power of Hitler • Hitler’s goal – to establish Germany as the dominant power in Europe • must violate the Treaty of Versailles • Tests of the League of Nations • 1 Manchuria invaded by Japan - 1931 • rich mineral and timber resources – Japan had very little • League asked Japan to withdraw but NO sanctions • L of N did ? • Why? • China too far away from Europe • racial prejudice • concerned with life at home

  22. Tests of the League of Nations • 2 Italian Invasion of Ethiopia (Abyssinia) • Mussolini wanted to restore the glory of ancient Rome • gain power by Imperialism • modern army attacked primitive (spears) nation • world outraged • Mussolini threatened war if any sanctions • L of N did ? • Why? • Mussolini said later he would have withdrawn if any sanctions

  23. Tests of the League of Nations • 3Spanish Civil War (1936 – 1939) • Fascism vs Democracy • Spanish Fascists (Franco – the leader – El Caudillo) • huge support from Mussolini and Hitler for Fascists • ‘rehearsal’ for World War II – planes, bombing, tanks, etc • Hitler learned that no action against aggression would be taken by the world • L of N did ? • Why? Italian Fiat Bomber used in Spain

  24. Tests of the League of Nations • 4 Reoccupation of the Rhineland - 1936 • Germany felt this area belonged to Germany and was going to take it back by an invasion (Imperialism) • Britain felt that this was the German ‘backyard’ • France was having political problems and could do nothing • ANY French resistance and Germany would have retreated • L of N did ? • Why? • gave Hitler confidence that no action would be taken against him and his aggressions • restored German pride (Nationalism)

  25. Tests of the League of Nations • 5 Anschluss with Austria • Alliance – forbidden by Treaty of Versailles • Hitler, himself, wanted to be German • Mussolini supported Austria – Hitler said I will support you in Ethiopia if Italy does not support Austria • used threat of German invasion to force Austria to accept a Nazi as Chancellor • ‘invited ‘ German troops into Austria to maintain order • L of N did ? • Why?

  26. Tests of the League of Nations • 6 Re-militarization of Germany • Hitler had completely rebuilt the military since 1933 • Army • Navy • Air Force • L of N did ? • Why?

  27. The Power of Hitler • Hitler now knew that no one would stand up to him • had restored German pride – as he said he would • had provided employment for all • had raised the national standard of living • had eliminated the hated Weimar government • had made Germany a world nation • was looked upon as a god – total devotion to Der Fuerher

  28. The Power of Hitler • Czechoslovakia and the Munich Pact • 3 million German-speaking people lived in Czechoslovakia – region known as the Sudetenland • very mountainous northern border of Czechoslovakia • Hitler wanted these ‘Germans’ to be part of Germany • Munich conference attended by Germany, Britain, France, and Italy • give Germany the Sudetenland in return for Hitler promise to ask for nothing more

  29. The Power of Hitler • Policy of Appeasement(Britain and France) • to calm international tensions by making concessions • when Fascist actions did not conflict with Western interests • avoid another war at any cost • countries needed all monies to feed and support the unemployed • could not afford war • feared Communism – (takeover government by violence) • Fascism a counter to Communism • much Western government conflict – no clear policy • Germany saw Appeasement as a weakness to be exploited

  30. The Power of Hitler • April 1938 – Hitler “It is my unalterable decision to smash Czechoslovakia by military action in the near future” • Munich Conference was September 1938 • Munich Conference took away the heavily fortified border of Czechoslovakia – country was defenceless • Russia felt that Br. And Fr., by appeasing Germany would cause Germany to look at invading Russia, not the west • March 1939 – Germany invaded Czechoslovakia • Hitler knows the west will do nothing to stop him

  31. The Polish Situation • Danzig (Gdansk) and Polish Corridor had been part of Germany pre-WWI • pre-dominantly German-speaking • wanted to be part of Germany • Hitler tried to bluff like at Munich • Britain and France no longer trusted Hitler • Britain and France pledged support to Poland if attacked • Hitler almost ready for war

  32. The Power of Hitler • German/Soviet Alliance • signed a mutual non-aggression pact – Aug 1939 • hated each other - radical right (Fascism) and radical left (Communism) • Germany will not fight a war on 2 fronts • Russia will not have to go to war • suffering from Depression • under the influence of Stalin and his extreme policies • Germany and Russia would split Poland when invaded

  33. Immediate Cause of WWII • September 1, 1939 • Germany invaded Poland • Germans used Blitzkreig – Lightning War • defeat enemy by cutting off supplies • very fast, massive air strikes along with rapid ground movement • Poland taken over by Germany and Russia in days • Britain and France declared war on Germany – Alliance with Poland

  34. Events of World War II • September 1, 1939 – Germany invaded Poland • Poland defeated within 3 weeks • October 1939 – April 1940 – very little fighting • “phoney war” – refine attack and defence plans • France reinforced Maginot Line • April 9, 1940 – Germany invaded Norway and Denmark – both neutral • May 10, 1940 – Germany invaded Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg and france • used Blitzkrieg tactics

  35. Events of World War II • Denmark fell in one week, Holland fell in one week, Belgium fell in three weeks • Germany invaded France through supposedly impenatrable Ardennes Forest, circling the Maginot Line • Blitzkreig forced Br. and Fr. to retreat • forced to the sea at Abbeyville/Dunkirk

  36. Events of World War II • Hitler Mistake # 1 • Dunkirk • 400,000 Br and Fr forces trapped on the beach at Dunkirk • Hitler could not decide whether the Army (Wermacht) or the Air Force (Luftwaffe) should have the ‘honour’ of destroying the British forces • Britain launched “Operation Dynamo” – a plan to evacuate (rescue) the soldiers • 850 ships rescued 338,000 men in 9 days • many ships were small, private boats

  37. Tamzine - one of the 'little ships'

  38. Events of World War II • Hitler Mistake # 1 • Shallow water at Dunkirk so small boats had to ferry soldiers to Navy ships offshore • Constant bombardment from Luftwaffe • Allies left behind 2,000 guns, 60,000 trucks, 76,000 tons of ammunition and 600,000 tons of fuel supplies • BUT – they rescued 338,000 men

  39. Events of World War II • Hitler Mistake # 1 • Why? • 1/3 million men rescued • trained, experienced soldiers • determination to fight again and avenge the defeat • huge increase in British pride • would have been devastating for Br if they had lost the soldiers

  40. Events of World War II • Evacuation from Dunkirk • May 27 (7669 men) • May 28 (17,804 men) • May 29 (47,310 men) • May 30-31 (120,927 men) • June 1 (64,229 men) • June 2-4 (up to 54,000 men)

  41. Events of World War II • after Dunkirk • German army (Wermacht) took Paris by June 17 • France fell to Germany in one month • defeat of the French army of < 3 million men • all of Continental Western Europe in Hitler’s hands • only the English Channel separated England from defeat by the Wermacht

  42. Events of World War II • The Battle of Britain • ".......the Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin, upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization, upon it depends our own British life and the long continuity of our    institution and our Empire."(Winston Churchill) • Hitler will now unleash “Operation Sea Lion” • the invasion of England by the Wermacht • the Luftwaffe must gain control of the air to ensure safe passage across the English Channel • July 10 1940 – bombing of British airfields and harbours • to destroy the air force

  43. Events of World War II • The Battle of Britain • German planes outnumber British 4 to 1 • but Br losses were 1 for every 2 German planes lost • Why? • Britain had developed Radar – detect the invading force in advance – tell numbers and direction • British planes could attack in moments – Germans had to fly for hours • Germans very low fuel and pilot fatigue at time of attack • British were defending their homeland – Germans were attacking another country

  44. Events of World War II • The Battle of Britain • Hitler Mistake # 2 • Bomb industrial, important and port cities instead of airfields • Bombing of London called the Blitz • from 7 September 1940 until 11 May 1941 • nightly bombings of cities • London very badly damaged • Coventry almost totally destroyed St. Paul’s Cathedral – Dec. 29, 1940 Ruins of Coventry Cathedral – Nov. 14, 1940

  45. Events of World War II • Battle of Britain – Hitler Mistake # 2 • Why? • Few attacks on airfields • allowed R.A.F to regroup, train pilots, fight back, bombing of German cities • Radar allowed early detection • increased British morale and determination to win • life went on as ‘normal’ • people ‘lived’ in the subway

  46. Events of World War II • Battle of the Atlantic • Britain needed food, fuel, ammunition, men, etc • Germany did not want to attack Br navy (strongest in world) • attacked merchant ships with submarines • Merchant Navy paid less than Navy and no armament • carried all kinds of goods to England • merchant ships travelled in convoy – protected by warships • submarines attacked in packs - “wolf packs” • huge damage to merchant vessels and navy ships

  47. Events of World War II • Battle of the Atlantic • 1939 : 222 ships sunk (114 by submarine) • 1940 : 1059 ships sunk (471 by submarine) • 1941 : 1328 ships sunk (432 by submarine) • 1942 : 1661 ships sunk (1159 by submarine) • 1943 : 597 ships sunk (463 by submarine) • 1944 : 247 ships sunk (132 by submarine) • 1945 : 105 ships sunk (56 by submarine)

  48. Events of World War II • Battle of the Atlantic • 17,593 ships sailed in convoy from Halifax • largest convoy had 167 ships, 1,000,000 tons of cargo • no ships were lost from this convoy • Losses • 30,248 merchant sailors - 28,000 sailors • 3,500 merchant vessels • 175 warships • 783 submarines • total 15,256,740 tons of cargo from 1939 - 1945