Language Development . what is language??? Language is a system of symbols or word sequences, that is used to communicate with others. It is the communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules. . Characteristics of language. Infinite generativity
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Language Development what is language??? • Language is a system of symbols or word sequences, that is used to communicate with others. • It is the communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules.
Characteristics of language • Infinite generativity • An individual’s ability to generate an infinite number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules, which makes language a highly creative enterprise. 2. Displacement • The use of language to communicate information about another place and time.
3. Signal simultaneity and overlap • Language transmits several aspects of information simultaneously unlike simple signaling system (such as traffic signal or telephone bell) 4. Rule systems • They involve phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.
The basic structure of language rests on grammar. • Grammar is the system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed. • Grammar deals with three major components of language: phonology, syntax, and semantics. • Phonology is the study of the smallest basic sound units, called phonemes, that affect the meaning of speech, and of the way we use those sounds to form words and meanings.
Syntax refers to the rules that indicate how words and phrases can be combined to form sentences. • Semantics refers to the rules governing the meaning of words and sentences. • Morphology is the study of the smallest units of meaning in a speech. • Speaking to have a impact on others is known as the pragmatics of language.
How do we learn language??? • Imitation? • Reinforcement? • Inherited? • Can language be inherited? Why? And why not?
Differing views of language acquisition • Biological influences • Broca’s area supports grammatical processing and language production. • Wernicke’s area is involved in comprehending word meaning. • Critical periods (18 months- puberty) – Eric Lenneberg. • Language Acquisition Device (LAD) – Noam Chomsky.
2. Environmental influences • Social environment factors (mother/ infant directed speech, recasting, echoing, expanding, labeling etc.) • Language learned through a process of imitation (Bandura) and reinforcement- B.F Skinner (behavioral perspective)
3. Interactionist view • LAD + LASS = LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Chomsky’s biological language acquisition device interacts with Bruner’s language acquisition support system results in child’s language acquisition.
Sequence of early language development language age Crying from birth Cooing 2-4 months Babbling 4-6 months Single words 12 months Two word phrases 18 months Longer phrases 2 years Short sentences and questions 2-3 years