Waste Stream Composition and Decomposition Chapter 09 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Waste Stream Composition and DecompositionChapter 09 Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection Division of Compliance Assistance 300 Fair Oaks Lane • Frankfort, KY 40601 Phone: 502.564.0323 • 800.926.8111 • Fax: 502.564.9720 Email: envhelp@ky.gov • Website: dca.ky.gov

  2. What are the different types of waste and how do they impact landfill operations?

  3. Chapter 09 General Objective Explain the types of waste and landfill gases, as well as how leachate is created and controlled.

  4. Chapter 09 Specific Objectives • Differentiate between the types of waste and landfills. • Explain decomposition of waste and the byproducts of this decomposition. • Understand the environmental impact of landfill gases.

  5. Chapter 09 Specific Objectives • Explain the production of leachate and how leachate is affected by the amount of water in the fill and the regulations relating to each. • Understand the movement of gas and leachate and how to control both. • Identify the air quality regulations governing gas control. • Demonstrate knowledge of the operating permit and how it relates to the types and sources of waste .

  6. Types of Waste • Solid • Household • Commercial • Medical (Biohazard/Infectious) • Construction/Demolition & Debris • Special Waste • Sewage Treatment Plant Residues • Industrial/Residual • Agricultural • Hazardous

  7. Solid Waste • Garbage, refuse, sludge, and other discarded material • Solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material • Results from industrial, commercial, mining (except coal mining), agricultural operations, and community activities • KRS 224.01-010(31)(a)

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Household Waste: • Putrescible (quickly decay/rot)and non-putrescible • Food (attracts flies and can cause odors) • Paper and packaging • Hazardous (paint thinner, pesticide) • Bulky items (furniture, appliances, “white goods”)

  9. Commercial Waste • Generated by stores, offices, restaurants, warehouses, and other service and non-manufacturing activities • Must be disposed of at a contained landfill which has a liner designed to thwart LQHW from contaminating groundwater.

  10. Medical (Biohazard/Infectious) Waste • Come from operation of hospitals and nursing homes, and may cause diseases • Examples: needles, bandages, body parts, bedding, infectious wastes, etc.

  11. Construction/Demolition and Debris (CDD) Waste • Results from construction, remodeling, repair, and demolition of structures and roads • Examples: bricks, concrete and other masonry materials, wood, rock, uncontaminated soil, wall coverings, drywall, plumbing fixtures, metals, furniture, shingles, insulation, etc.

  12. Special Wastes • Wastes of high volume and low hazard • Examples:mining wastes, utility wastes, sludge from waste and wastewater treatment facilities, cement kiln dust, gas/oil drilling muds, oil production brines, etc. • KRS 224.50-760

  13. Sewage Treatment Plant Residues • Generated from the sewage treatment process • Septic tank pumpingscannot be accepted at solid waste landfills without the addition of bulking agents

  14. Industrial/Residual Waste • Generated by manufacturing or industrial processes that is not a hazardous waste or a special waste • Examples: waste from fertilizer/agricultural chemical manufacturing, plastics and resin manufacturing, bark waste from the pulp and paper industry

  15. Agricultural Wastes • Non-hazardous wastes generated from the use of agricultural products on the farm • Herbicides and pesticidesare notagricultural wastes

  16. Hazardous Waste • Any discarded material or material intended to be discarded which may pose a present or potential hazard to human health or the environment • KRS 224.01-010(31)(b)

  17. Limited Quantity Generators • Generate less than 220 pounds of hazardous waste in any month • DWM field office must be notified immediatelywhen actual or suspected hazardous waste is found during random inspections • Random inspections are an important method to detect these wastes and prevent their disposal at a solid waste landfill

  18. Waste Composition • Organic materials are largest component of MSW • Seasonal variations in waste composition affect the amount of waste generated • Recycling can have an impact on waste stream • Waste composition is subject to change as one type of material displaces another and/or consumer buying habits change

  19. Waste Decomposition • Wastes are decomposed: • through chemical reactions with landfill liquids • action of bacteria and other microbes • Complete decomposition may take fifty years or more

  20. Acceptable Disposable Waste Streams • Contained landfill operating permit identifies the geographic source(s) of wastes a landfill is approved to receive • Can accept anything except hazardous waste (Limited Quantity waste OK)

  21. Landfill Gases • CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) • highly soluble in water, dissolves iron from metal cans, odorless and colorless • METHANE (CH4) • Non-toxic; flammable; odorless, colorless, and tasteless • HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) • Highly toxic and flammable, heavier than air, creates odors (rotten eggs)

  22. Environmental Impact of Landfill Gas • LFG is highly combustible • LFG can migrate significant distances through soil • LFG has been shown to contribute to air pollution • More difficult to control than leachate

  23. Leachate Generation • Amount of leachate generated is directly affected by amount of water allowed to enter the landfill • Water can enter the landfill in many ways • Managermust ensure the proper pumping, hauling and treatment of landfill leachate

  24. Movement of Gas and Leachate • Gas and leachate follow the path of least resistance • Move more easily through permeable materials • E.g. sand and gravel

  25. Graphical Representation of Gas and Leachate Movement L (Leachate) = P – (E + T + R)

  26. Gas Control • Passive Systems

  27. Gas Control (cont.) • Active Systems

  28. Leachate Control • Good drainage, high compaction of wastes and good surface water management • Proper control of storm water • Communication is the key!

  29. Surface Water Control Methods

  30. Drainage Control Using Berms

  31. Landfill Emissions Monitoring & Reporting • Gas management systems are required as a component of the landfill final cover • Owners/operators of contained landfills are requiredto report emissions of greenhouse gases if amounts of CH4 exceed 25,000 metric tons CO2e per year • 40 CFR Part 98 Subpart HH

  32. Environmental Performance Standards • No solid waste site or facility shall violate applicable air pollution requirements • KRS chapter 224 or 401 KAR chapters 50 through 63 (401 KAR 47:030 section 10(2) and 30:031 section 10(2)) • Solid waste sites must follow explosive gas safety standards

  33. Special Handling Considerations for Specific Types of Waste • Asbestos • Sludges • Bulky Items • Smoldering Waste • Dusts • Drums

  34. Waste Stream Testing • Avisual inspection of the wastecannot always be used to determine if the waste is acceptable • Sometimes laboratory analyses are required • TCLP test – generator responsibility • Paint filter test

  35. Chapter 09 General Objective Explain the types of waste and landfill gases, as well as how leachate is created and controlled.

  36. Chapter 09 Specific Objectives • Differentiate between the types of waste and landfills. • Explain decomposition of waste and the byproducts of this decomposition. • Understand the environmental impact of landfill gases.

  37. Chapter 09 Specific Objectives • Explain the production of leachate and how leachate is affected by the amount of water in the fill and the regulations relating to each. • Understand the movement of gas and leachate and how to control both. • Identify the air quality regulations governing gas control. • Demonstrate knowledge of the operating permit and how it relates to the types and sources of waste .