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Preventing Injuries through Fitness Training

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  1. Preventing Injuries through Fitness Training Chapter 4

  2. Objectives • Identify the concept of periodization and the types of exercise that are performed in each phase. • Identify principles of conditioning • Explain the importance of the warm-up and cool-down periods. • Describe the importance of flexibility, strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance for athletics and injury prevention. • Identify the specific techniques and principles for improving flexibility, muscular strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance.

  3. Objective: Identify the principles of conditioning Foundations of Conditioning SAID PRINCIPLE Specific Adaptationto Imposed Demands

  4. Objective: Explain the importance of warmup and cooldown periods. Warm-Up and Cooldown • Warm-up Exercises • Why are they important? • Helps prepare body for workout by stimulating the CRS. • How do they reduce injuries? • Warms muscles up so they are not tight before workout • What type of stretches should be done? • Dynamic • Cool-down • Benefits – Decreases muscle soreness, helps to elongate muscles after workout. • How long? – 5-10 minutes • What type of stretches should be done? • Static

  5. Objective: Describe the importance of flexibility, strength, cardiorespiratroy endurance for both athletic performance and injury prevention. Flexibility • Flexibility - the range of motion possible about a given joint or series of joints. • Why is it important? • Essential to normal daily function • Essential for high performance • How can it be limited? • Bony structure • Excess fat • Skin wounds • Muscles • Neural tissues • Connective tissue • How is it measured? • Goniometer

  6. Flexibility • Active vs. Passive Range of Motion • Active – What the patient can do on their own • Passive – What the clinician can push them to do • Agonist vs. Antagonist Muscles • Agonist – Muscle being targeted • Antagonist – Opposing muscle

  7. Stretching Techniques • Ballistic – Bouncing movement. Controversial because the jerk of the muscle when it is tight can cause muscle injury. • Static – Passive stretch. Increases ROM and helps reduce soreness. • Dynamic – Controlled muscle contractions that mimic sport specific activities. • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) – Stretching and muscle contractions that have been proven to be most beneficial for increasing ROM. (contract relax, slow reversal, hold relax) • Deep Tissue – Stretches the fascia around the muscles. • Neural Flossing– Breaks up adhesions on the nerve after an injury.

  8. Stretching Techniques Examples

  9. Muscular Strength and Endurance • Muscular Strength – the maximum force that can be applied by a muscle during a single maximum contraction. • Muscular Endurance – the ability to perform repetitive muscular contractions against some resistance

  10. Types of Skeletal Contractions • Isometric – Muscle contraction where there is no change in muscle length. • Concentric – Muscle contraction where the length of the muscle shortens. • Eccentric – Muscle contraction where the length of the muscle lengthens.

  11. What Determines the Amount of Strength? • Size of muscle • Number of muscle fibers • Neuromuscular efficiency • Biomechanical Factors • Fast-Twitch v. slow-twitch muscle fibers • Type 1 (ST) – Carry O2, fatigue resistant, aerobic. • Type 2 (FT) – Fast fatiguing, anaerobic • Level of physical activity • Overtraining

  12. Resistance Training Techniques Technique Action Equipment/Activity Isometric exercise Force develops while muscle length remains constant Any immovable resistance Progressive resistance Force develops while the muscle shortens or lengthens Free weights, Universal, Exercise (PRE) Nautilus, Eagle, Cybex, Body Master Isokinetic training Force develops while muscle is contracting Cybex, Orthotron, Biodex at a constant velocity Circuit training Uses a combination of isometric, PRE, or isokinetic May use any equipment exercise in a series of stations Plyometric exercise Uses a rapid eccentric stretch of the muscle to Hops, bounds, and depth facilitate an explosive concentric contraction jumps Calisthenics Uses body weight for resistance No equipment needed (Sit-ups,push-ups,ect.)

  13. Resistance Training Techniques Isometric Exercise Progressive Resistive Exercise PlyometricExercise Calisthenics IsokineticExercise

  14. Exercise Terminology • Repetition – The number of times a weight is lifted • Repetition Max – The max number of weight that can be lifted once • Set – the total number of reps completed • Recovery period – Rest interval between sets • Frequency – How often you exercise • Intensity – The amount of weight lifted or how hard you work during exercise (Based on THR) • Time – How long you exercise • Type – What type of activity are you doing (Cardio, Weight lifting)

  15. Cardiorespiratory Endurance • Cardiorespiratory endurance – ability to perform activities for extended periods. The better your endurance, the greater the resistance to fatigue. • Aerobic activity – Requires oxygen. Continuous, long duration activities • Anaerobic activity - Does not require oxygen. Short, high intensity, explosive exercises.

  16. Cardiorespiratory System • Components of the cardiorespiratory system • Heart, lungs, blood vessels, blood • Exercise effects on the heart • Body contains about 5L of blood • Stroke volume – amount of blood pumped with each beat • Cardiac output – Amount of blood pumped in 1 minute. • CO = SV x HR • Ex. In class comparison

  17. Cardiorespiratory System • What determines how efficiently the body is using oxygen? • Maximum aerobic capacity (VO2 Max) • Greatest rate at which O2 can be taken in and used during exercises. • How is it measured? (ml/kg/min) • Max HR = 220 – age • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7kn3mkO7Ec

  18. Cardiorespiratory Systems training • 3 main systems used to produce energy to work our muscles. • ATP – Sudden bursts of energy. Last only about 10 sec. • Glycolytic – Glycogen from muscles and liver is broken down to produce ATP. Anaerobic activities that can last up to 2 minutes. Produces lactate. • Oxidative – Uses O2 to breakdown food to produce ATP. Aerobic activities that produce 2x as much ATP and not as much lactate.

  19. Improving Cardiorespiratory Endurance • Methods for improving cardiorespiratory endurance • Continuous training – Aerobic activity • FITT • Interval training – Intermittent activities • Fartlek training – Running interval training to increase speed

  20. Objective: Identify the concept of periodization and the types of exercise that are performed in each phase. Conditioning Seasons and Periodization • Periodization – an approach to conditioning that uses various types and intensity of training throughout the year. • Goals • Individualization • Peak performance • Decrease injury • Variety

  21. Season Period/Phase Type of Training Activity Off-Season sports Transition period Unstructured Recreational Preparatory period Cross training Hypertrophy/endurance phase Low intensity/ High Volume Non-sport-specific Strength phase Moderate intensity/ Moderate volume More sport-specific Preseason Power phase High Intensity/ Decreased Volume Sport specific In-season Competition period High Intensity/ Low Volume Skill training Strategic Periodization Training

  22. Periodization

  23. For more information • Fitness World http://www.fitnessworld.com • Health and Fitness Worldguide Forum http://www.worldguide.com/Fitness/hf.html • Tips on Fitness http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/2894