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Animal Behavior. http://www.flickr.com/photos/fpat/3375999258/. Behavior - any action that can be observed and described. Some are innate, while others are learned. Ethology - the scientific study of animal behavior. Kinesis and Taxis are 2 major animal responses to stimuli.

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animal behavior

Animal Behavior

http://www.flickr.com/photos/fpat/3375999258/

slide2

Behavior - any action that can be observed and described.

Some are innate, while others are learned.

Ethology - the scientific study of animal behavior

kinesis and taxis are 2 major animal responses to stimuli
Kinesis and Taxis are 2 major animal responses to stimuli

Kinesis: non-directional movement in response to a stimulus

Taxis: directional movement in response to a stimulus (toward or away)

types of taxis
Types of Taxis
  • Gravitaxis
  • Ex: Fruit flies will always move against gravity
  • Thermotaxis
  • Ex: Slime molds move along temperature gradient to stay in soil of appropriate temperatures
  • Phototaxis
                • Ex: cockroaches move away from light
  • Chemotaxis
  • Ex: Ants follow trail left by other ants
slide5
Thigmonasty is a type of Thigmotaxis

http://ticklemeplant.com/ ( Mimosa pudica)

why do behaviors exist
Why do behaviors exist?

Studies of animal behavior often focuses on what behaviors are genetically based and what is learned (Nature vs. Nurture)

nature vs nurture
Nature vs. Nurture
  • Twin studies
                • -Look at characteristics of twins raised apart
                • -Many share common preferences in food, activity patterns and mate selection
      • Hog Nose Snake
      • -Natural defense to spit at predators and then turn over and ooze secretion that smells like rotting flesh
slide8

Serial Killer, Ted Bundy

Is a serial killer born that way?

learned behaviors change in behavior as a result of experience
Learned Behaviors: change in behavior as a result of experience

Imprinting

Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

Habituation

Observations

Insight

slide11

Learning during Critical Period

Imprinting - bond that forms between adults and offspring

operant conditioning
OPERANT CONDITIONING

Involves "training" a behavior using a reward or punishment system.

Skinner Box

habituation same stimuli over and over so you learn to ignore it
Habituation: same stimuli over and over, so you learn to ignore it
  • Hamster stops responding to cage every time you tap on bars
  • Turtle stops drawing its head in every time you tap its shell
  • Boy who cried wolf
observational learning watching another organism and mimicking its behavior
Observational learning: watching another organism and mimicking its behavior

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-LTWFnGmeg

insight learning trial and error learning
Insight Learning: trial-and-error learning

If you are given materials, can you build what you need to achieve the desired result?

slide18

Sociobiology and Animal BehaviorAltruism vs.Self Interest 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=icaGIeOY9gc

slide21
Mating Behavior

Sexual Selection – increases an animal’s ability to mate and produce offspring

Expressed in 3 ways:

1. Male competition - males will compete for access to females, leads to dominance hierarchies and territoriality 

2. Female Choice: females invest more in offspring by being choosier about their mate’s genes

3. Sexual dimorphism: as a result of female choice, traits in males become exaggerated

slide22
Animal Communication
  • Chemical (pheromones)
  • Auditory
  • Visual
  • Tactile (touch)
  • Humans aren’t the only animals with a “language”!
  • Waggle Dance
slide23
Environmental cues and cycles that regulate behavior
  • Hibernation: period of inactivity and metabolic depression, usually in cooler weather
  • Estivation: period of inactivity in hot temperatures, to avoid dessication
  • Migration: Long distance, seasonal movement, usually for reproductive purposes

Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SLoXDFDeD9E

physiological responses often synchronize with environmental cycles
Physiological responses often synchronize with environmental cycles
  • Hibernation/Estivation tend to synchronize with seasons and weather
  • Visual displays for reproduction tend to occur in the later summer and early fall, so that gestation occurs through harshest part of year
  • Circadian Rhythms, a 24-hour cycle, is present in all eukaryotes