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Canadian Society and Culture: PowerPoint Presentation
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Canadian Society and Culture:

Canadian Society and Culture:

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Canadian Society and Culture:

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  1. Canadian Society and Culture: Times of Change I remember! His name is Paul Anka!

  2. Massey Commission • Formed in 1951 • Goal: investigate the state of Canadian culture • Results: suggested that Canadian culture needed protection from US influence • Strengthen National Film Board • Fund universities and the arts • Establish Canada Council for the Arts • Awarded grants to writers, artists, and theaters • CBC put in charge of development of Canadian television • 1952 – opened first two stations in Toronto and Montreal • By 1960, 90% of Canadian homes had a TV and access to the CBC

  3. CRTC • Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission established in 1968 • Regulates foreign content in Canadian media

  4. Each of these measures encouraged the growth of the arts and culture in Canada

  5. Newcomers to Canada • Since 1905, Canada’s immigration policy was quite restrictive, wanting only people of British or European origin • After WW II, millions of displaced persons, or refugees, were looking for a home • 165 000 came to Canada • 1956 – A violent Hungarian revolution – Canada relaxed entry requirements and accepted 37 000 immigrants who wanted to escape communism

  6. First Nations • After returning from the War, Aboriginal soldiers were denied benefits other veterans received • Residential schools grew (76 in operation during the 1950s) • 1951 changes to the Indian Act – women allowed to vote in band elections; potlatches were now legal • 1953-1955 Relocation of Inuit families from Northern Quebec and Pond Inlet in Nunavut to Grise Fjord and Resolute Bay (2000 km away).

  7. This move to the High Arctic was voluntary because hinting in their previous area was poor, but they were not told about conditions in the Arctic or about how difficult it would be to return to Quebec if they wished to do so. • They were dropped off without firewood or housing at the onset of the Arctic’s four-month winter darkness • Law suits later would argue that this was a move by the government to assert sovereignty in the Far North for Canada and not done with the interest of the Inuit in mind

  8. New Times, New Leadership Canadian Politics of the 1950s

  9. Mackenzie King • 1948 King retires; longest serving Prime Minister • Replaced by Louis St. Laurent; known as “Uncle Louis”

  10. St. Laurent as PM • Expanded federal social welfare programs • Brought in hospital insurance • An important step towards universal health care • Brought Newfoundland into Confederation • Appointed first Canadian-born Governor General (Vincent Massey) • Made Supreme Court of Canada the highest court • Changes to the BNA Act, now Canadian Parliament could make amendments to its own constitution without appealing to British Parliament • Initiated mega-projects (Trans-Canada Hwy)

  11. 1957 election • Conservative John Diefenbaker elected “Dief” • Populist (someone who appeals to concerns of ordinary people) leader from Saskatchewan • A witty orator • “I saw people kneel and kiss his coat. Not one, but many. People were in tears. People were delirious.”

  12. Arrival of Newfoundland • Newfoundland was a British colony that was growing in its own independence • Great Depression hit it very hard; declared bankruptcy; governed by Great Britain • GB sets up a special commission to govern • 1948 referendum (3 choices) • Governed by special commission (no change) • Self-governed dominion within British Empire • Join Canada (pushed by Joey Smallwood) • Smallwood elected premier of province – hold position for more than two decades

  13. Quebec and Nationalism • 1944-1959 premier Maurice Duplessis • Believed in Quebec as a distinct culture, a “nation” rather than a province • Roman Catholic Church became defender of Quebec culture • Rural farming lifestyle vs English materialism • Emphasize languages, philosophy vs Science and industry

  14. Great Darkness • Duplessis encouraged foreign investment but not cultural influences • Labour was cheap (discouraged/banned union activity), taxes were low • Companies were expected to contribute to the Union Nationale in return for these favorable business conditions • Bribery and corruption were rampant • Duplessis Orphans • Time was known as “La Grande Noirceur”