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Chapter 10
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  1. Chapter 10 A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe

  2. Overview of Western Europe • Subject to frequent invasions • Weak regional authority, no central authority ( • Careful use of “civilized” . . . Much of Western Europe had little, if any, exposure to Roman Empire

  3. EUROPE c. 526 – 600 C.E.

  4. Government in Western Europe Manorialism: • “System of economic and political relations between landlords and peasant laborers” • Exact conditions could vary from region to region depending on the landlord • Principal form of agricultural organization • Manor was a large estate controlled by lord • Many lords could execute serfs for serious misconduct • Manors were largely self-sufficient communities • Trade: luxuries, manufactured products, finished goods • Serfs had to work lord’s land first, before their own plots

  5. Governments in Western Europe Cont Feudalism: • Political/Military relationship between landed elites • Protection offered by more powerful lords to those beneath them • Fealty: Military service and loyalty • Offered by vassals to lords above them • Initially limits development of more centralized control due to regional loyalties

  6. Lords and vassals • Lord owned land, needs soldiers • Trades land for service • Grants of land called fiefs • Vassal provided defense • Received livelihood from land • Vassals provided military equipment • Vassals owed lord: • Loyalty, obedience, respect, counsel • Military service when called into service • Lords often made smaller grant to others • Called sub-division of fief • Lowest, service owning noble was a knight • Church often made vassals of soldiers for defense • Church could hold land as a vassal to a lord • Church often held land in own right • Women could be vassals, own fiefs but not fight • Feudal politics • Multi-layered network of lord-vassal relationships • Political stability depended on discipline, control • Lords, knights often had conflicting loyalties

  7. Serfs • Difference between peasants, serfs • Peasants were free, owned their own land • Serfs not free, could not own land • Serfs, peasants lived similar lives • Serfs as an intermediate category • Began under Romans • Diocletian bound people to occupations • Serfdom arose during invasions, marauders • Slaves, peasants frequently intermarried • Free peasants became serfs for protection • Serfs' obligations • Labor service and rents in kind • Could not move without permission • Serfs had right to work on land, pass job to heirs • Serfs often drafted as foot soldiers in feudal armies

  8. Economy in Western Europe • no market economy (trade) –food production and land ownership form basis of wealth • development of better farming techniques allowed for increased food production, rise in population, and centralization of authority • later development of commercial trade (headed by Italians -access to waterways) • because of Christian ethics, views on merchants were similar to China

  9. Society in Western Europe • Serf does not mean slave: can own property, not traded or sold • No single unifying language in Western Europe • makes development of central authority difficult • Majority of population was rural • Urban population of Western Europe – 5% vs Urban population of Asian Civs – 15% • Few cities over 100,000 people in W. Europe vs 52 cities over 100,000 people in China alone

  10. The Three Estates 1. "Those who pray" – clergy, spiritual estate • Ruling hierarchy: Popes, bishops, abbots • Common clergy: Monks, priests 2. "Those who fight" - feudal nobles, military estate • Royalty who ran a state • Land owning lords such as dukes, counts, princes • Lowest nobility with no land were knights 3. "Those who work" - mostly peasants and serfs • Peasants and Serfs • Those who lived in Towns (Burg = Burghers) • Not an estate in most countries • Grew to become middle class Usually interrelated

  11. Gender in Western Europe • Contradiction between sanctity of the female (Virgin Mary) and domestic obedience • Women had great involvement in religion (but could not lead), and had commercial opportunities

  12. Gender Roles Cont • Public Role • Very limited as it was a “male’s world” • Women could own property in own right • Feudalism did not prohibit women from fighting but often they named a champion • Female rulers were not unknown • Generally seen as regents for son, grandson • If widowed, lost rights if remarried or when male came of age • Frequently seen in Spain, Scandinavia, England, Italy • Laws would not permit women to rule in France, Germany, Eastern Europe • Private Role • ALWAYS differentiate between aristocracy, poor • Aristocratic Women • Women were the womb to breed the heir; marriage politics taken very seriously • Roles public and private limited by convention and wealth to social roles and little else • Poor women • Equally a man’s world but women had to work next to males for family to survive • Most women married due to pregnancy, married early in life, died young

  13. Religion in Western Europe • Catholic church provides only form of stability and order • Hierarchy: • Pope Bishops (regional) Priests (local) • Constant give and take between Church and regional rulers

  14. Papal Power • The Pope • Spiritual head of all Christians including aristocrats, royalty • Weapons included excommunication, interdict, canon law • Economically received tithe, freedom from taxation, owned great economic wealth • Popes became head of reform movements • Abolished simony, insisted on celibacy of priests, reformed monasteries • Established College of Cardinals to elect popes not kings, mobs • Popes Gregory VIII and Innocent III defied, deposed kings • Popes launched crusades against Muslims, heretic Christians, some Italians

  15. The Spread of the Church • Popes took an active roll in sending out missionaries • Pagan ways did not disappear immediately • Scandinavia, Baltic lands were last to convert • Pagan rituals often blended into Christianity • Cities, towns largely Christian but countryside weakly so • By 1000 C.E., western Europe was Roman Christianity • Irish, Mozarabic rites of Christianity accepted by Pope • Arian Christianity eliminated by Franks

  16. Monastic Rule • St. Benedict (480-547 C.E.) provided a set of regulations • Virtues of Benedictine monks: poverty, chastity, and obedience • Western monastic rites differed from Eastern rites • Western rites emphasized work, prayer, service to the poor • Eastern rites were relatively isolated, dedicated to prayer but not outside contacts • St. Scholastica (482-543 C.E.) • St. Benedict's sister, a nun • Adapted the Rule, and provided guidance for religious life of women

  17. Role of the Monasteries in Social Life • Became dominant feature in social and cultural life of western Europe • Accumulated large landholdings but spread knowledge • Wealthy patrons donated land to monks for monasteries • Taught peasants, serfs techniques of farming • Cleared forested lands, planted them • Organized much of rural labor for agriculture • Provided a variety of social services • Inns and shelters for travelers and refugees • Orphanages, medical centers • Schools, libraries and scriptoria • Monks served needs of rural population

  18. Art/Technology in Western Europe • Art centered on religious ideas/themes • ultimately allowed for development of scientific/philosophical ideas • building blocks of later Western culture • New technologies & contacts • from Africa –new crops • from Asia / Middle East –new farming tools, math, science, philosophy • from Eastern Europe –math, science, philosophy (obviously NOT religion) • **Western Europe takes far more than it gives**

  19. Changes to Western Government • Charles Martel (732 CE) • Battle of Tours & momentary empire • Charlemagne (800-814 CE) • Momentary empire • William the Conqueror (1066 CE) • Fusion of feudalism & centralization in England • Magna Carta(1215 CE) • Limits central authority in England • 100 Years War (14thcentury) • Feudalism declines in favor of states

  20. Charlemagne’s Empire

  21. The Crusades (all 9 of them) • 11th& 12thcenturies (1stCrusade –1095) • Attempts by western Christians to gain control of the “holy land” from Muslims

  22. Consequences of the Crusades • Facilitated exchange of goods between Muslims, Europe • Demands for silk, cotton textiles, and spices increased; spread sugar, citrus plants • Italian merchants sought opportunities for direct trade in Asian markets • European borrowed heavily from Muslim intellectual knowledge • Reacquired Aristotle, lost Greek classics • Borrowed Muslim science, mathematics, technology, paper skills • Borrowed Muslim architectural techniques • Helped produce a 12th century European intellectual Renaissance • Impact on Muslims • Mostly continue to fight with each other • General Saladin recovers most Muslim losses • Impact on Europeans • Full forgiveness of all sins if they die • Exposed to new cultural/economic influences • New ideas for weapons & castles • Recover lost Greek/Roman knowledge • Chess, chivalry, ballads, coffee



  25. EUROPE c. 1000 C.E.