Lecture 15 Air Masses & Fronts. What is an air mass?. Air Mass really big blob of air with similar properties Usually 1600 km (1000 miles) across Several km thick Change in weather when one air moves out and a new air moves in Also known as a FRONTAL PASSAGE
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Also called the Norwegian Cyclone Model
Discovered by Norwegian scientists during World War I
Theory states that MLCs
Develop in conjunction with the Polar Front
Cold equatorward moving air collides with warm poleward moving air.
The collisions create FRONTS!
In the upper atmosphere polar front is continuous, at the surface it is DISCONTINUOUS.
Boundaries surfaces that separate air masses of different densities (think temperature)
Can be combinations of warm, cold, dry, moist…
Usually 15-200 km wide bands but narrow
Represented by narrow lines on a weather map
Warmer air overlies cooler air (it’s less dense)
Ideally the fronts move in approx. the same direction.
The FRONT is the barrier that travelswith the air masses
No matter which air mass is moving faster the warm air ALWAYS moves above cold air.
Overrunning – describes warm air moving over cooler air.
When temperatures change from cold to warm after a frontal passage.
As a warm front approaches you see clouds in a certain order:
Lifting associated with warm fronts has a large HORIZONTAL component
gradual slope (1 km vertical : 200 km horiz.)
Slow rate of advance
Winds shift from EAST to SOUTHWEST
Travel at 25-35 km/h (15-20 mph)
Tend to produce light-moderate precipitation over a LARGE area for a LONG time.
When temperatures change from warm to cold after a frontal passage.
Slope is steep!
Friction slows the surface position of the front compared to it’s position aloft.
As a cold front approaches you see clouds in a certain order:
1) Maybe Altocumulus
3) Towering Cumulus
Steep slope (1 km vertical : 100 km horizontal)
Twice as steep as a warm front.
Fast rate of advance (35-50 km/h (20-35 mph))
Winds shift from Southwestto Northwest
Tend to produce heavy precipitation over a SMALL area for a SHORT time.Cold Fronts
usually a continental polar (cP) air mass
generally stable which limits cloud developmentCold Fronts
Air flow is parallel to the front
Warm air becomes suspended over the cold and cool air.
Weather near an occluded front is complex
Cold-type occluded front
In the Rockies
Weather resembles cold fronts
Cold front air is colder than the cool air it is invading.
Warm-type occluded front
Milder maritime air invades cP air