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Biopsychology. Or Everything you’ve ever wanted to know about sexual selection but were afraid to ask. Interactions. Definitions of interactions: The whole is greater than the sum of its parts The relationship between the variables is multiplicative instead of additive

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Biopsychology

Or

Everything you’ve ever wanted to know about sexual selection but were afraid to ask

slide2
Interactions

Definitions of interactions:

The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

The relationship between the variables is multiplicative instead of additive

The effectiveness of one intervention is contingent upon another intervention

slide3
Interactions

No

Yes

0

3

No

5

-20

Yes

slide4
Interactions

Valium

No

Yes

0

10

No

Alcohol

5

100

Yes

slide5
Interactions

Gender

Male

Female

Scorpion King

10

-10

Movie

Ya Ya Sisterhood

-10

10

slide6
Evolution

Survival of the fittest

slide7
Evolution

Finding/Harvesting Resources

Avoiding Predators

Avoiding Illness

REPRODUCING!!!

slide8
Evolution

If other organs such as the stomach and spleen were evolutionarily advantageous, why not the brain?

slide9
Evolution

Mate Selection

Men – Looking to “spread their seed”

Women – Looking for a mate who will care for children

slide10
Evolution

Post Hoc Theorizing Game

He who hesitates is lost

Look before you leap

Birds of a feather flock together

Opposites attract

slide11
Behavioral Genetics

Nature

Vs.

Nurture

slide12
Behavioral Genetics

Identical Twins

100%

Fraternal Twins

50%

slide13
Behavioral Genetics

Shared Genetics

Genetic Family

Adopted Child

Adopted Family

Shared environment

slide15
Behavioral Genetics

Heritability Estimates – The proportion of the total variance in a trait that is attributable to genetic variation within a group.

slide16
Behavioral Genetics

Heritability Estimates

Intelligence: .70

Neuroticism: .55

Depression: .44

Doing Crosswords: .55

Liking Sweets: .65

Playing Chess: .62

Assertiveness: .72

Smoking: .48

Ambition: .54

Humility: .42

Leadership: .59

Time Reading: .43

slide17
Behavioral Genetics

However, it is generally accepted that behavior is determined by a nature x nurture interaction

e.g. A person with a genetic predisposition towards alcoholism won’t become an alcoholic if he never takes a sip of liquor

slide18
Psychophysiology

Heart Rate

Blood Pressure

Skin Conductance

Electromyography

Cortisol Levels

Breathing Rates

Tone of Voice

slide19
Psychophysiology

Polygraphs

Liars feel:

1) Nervous that they’ll get caught

2) Guilty about lying

slide20
Psychophysiology

Polygraphs

  • How it works:
  • Tell the truth, get a baseline measure
  • Tell a lie, get a measure of deception
  • Compute the difference between the two
  • Ask real questions, if subject looks more like a liar than a truth-teller, then the subject is lying
slide21
Psychophysiology

Polygraphs

  • Problems:
  • Questions may be anxiety provoking
  • Knowing that if the machine says that you’re lying you’ll go to jail causes anxiety
  • Not all liars exhibit psychophysiological responses.
slide22
Psychophysiology

How to trick a polygraph:

Difference

Arousal

Time

slide23
Psychophysiology

How to trick a polygraph:

Arousal

Difference

Time

slide24
Psychophysiology

How polygraphs REALLY work

Criminals get scared by the prospect of being detected, and they confess their crimes!

slide25
Psychophysiology

Other areas that psychophys can study

Emotion

Attitudes

Unconscious Processes

slide26
Circadian Rythyms

The Sleep-Wake Cycle

Free of all time cues, the human day averages about 25 hours

Body temperature, and hormone levels follow this cycle

Regulated by the hormone melatonin

Since we have a ~24 hour cycle, the longer we stay awake, the less we sleep!

slide27
Circadian Rythyms

Average Hours Sleeping per Day

Giant Sloth: 20 hours

Brown Bat: 19 hours

House Cat: 14 hours

Jaguar: 10 hours

Human: 8 hours

Elephant: 3 hours

Horse: 2 hours

slide28
Sleep Deprivation

The Randy Gardner Case

Mood Disturbance common

Complex Cognitive tasks unaffected

Dull cognitive tasks are difficult

Longitudinal partial sleep deprivation causes more difficulty than short term total sleep deprivation

Microsleeps

slide29
Sleep Deprivation

Experimental rats die after several days.

Yoked Rats not affected.

slide30
Sleep Deprivation

Increasing sleep efficiency after deprivation

Da Vinci’s sleep strategy

15 minute nap every 4 hours

Total of 1.5 hours of sleep per day

Replicated by Stampi, (1992) in a lab.

Takes 2 weeks to adjust, during which time...

slide31
Conclusions
  • Evolution may have impacted our behavior, but be wary of post-hoc analysis
  • The nature vs. nurture debate should be viewed as an interaction
  • Psychophysiology can tell us a great deal, but polygraphs are useless.
  • Sleep is good.
slide32
Assignment #1

Example for class:

Spanking Children

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