BIOPSYCHOLOGY OF MOTIVATION. Hunger, Eating, and Health. Why do many people eat to much?. Reasons why People EAT. Survival Pleasure Serious personal and Health problems. EXCESSIVE EATING. DIABETES HYPERTENSION CARDIOVASCULAR CANCER Contrast.............. Anorexia Bulimia.
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Hunger, Eating, and Health
Purpose of Hunger----- to increase the probability of eating and the primary purpose of eating is to supply the body with the molecular building blocks and energy it needs to survive and function (Blackburn 2001)
-------consequences in the amt. Of stored fat
----largely stored in the liver and muscles
Glucose- the body main directly utilizable source of energy.
Why body preferred fat instead of glycogen
Note: if fat were stored as glycogen , we will weigh over 275kilograms/ 600pds
Energy metabolism- the chemical changes by which energy is made available for an organism’s use)
2. ABSORPTIVE PHASE- the period during which the energy absorbed into the bloodstream from the meal is meeting the body’s immediate energy needs.
3. FASTING PHASE-the period during which all of the unstored energy from the previous meal has been used and the body is withdrawing energy from its reserves to meet its immediate energy requirementd; it ends with the beginning of the next cephalic phase.
During the periods of rapid weight gain-----people go directly from one absorptive phase into the next cephalic phase------without experiencing an interviewing fasting phase.
3. it promotes the storage of glycogen in liver and muscle; fat in adipose tissue and proteins in muscle.
The phases are characterized by high blood levels of glucagon and low levels of insulin.
WHAT HAPPEN WITHOUT THE HIGH LEVELS OF INSULIN IN PROCESS?
While the glucagon in the fasting phase promote the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue and becomes the body’s primary fuel.
There is also the conversion of free fatty acids to ketones which are used by the muscles-----source of energy during the fasting phase.
What happen if we dont eat for an hour?
Set points vs Positive incentives
Set Point Assumption
It is when the energy resources of the body are returned to their optimal level.
------when to eat again?
When the level of the body’s energy resources falls far enough below the set point, a person becomes motivated by hunger to initiate another meal.
The meal continues, acdg. To the set-point assumption, until the energy level returns to its set point and the person feels satiated ( no longer hungry).
ASSIUME that hunger and eating work in much the same way as a thermostat regulated heating system in a cool climate.
-defines the set pt.
-detects deviations from the set point
-acts to eliminate the deviations--------------are the thermostat.
EATING is regulated by a system that is designed to maintain a blood glucose set point.
The idea -----we become hungry when our blood glucose levels drop significantly below their set point and that we become satiated when eating returns our blood glucose levels to their set point. GLUCOSTATIC THEORY
THE PURPOSE OF EATING ---- is to defend a blood glucose set point, bec. Glucose is the brains primary fuel.
Acdg--- every person has a set point for body fat, and deviations from this set point produce compensatory adjustments in the level of eating that return levels of body fat to their set point.
a. Hyperphasia- excessive eating
b. Extreme obesity in rats
TWO DIFFERENT PHASES
reduce food consumption