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BIOPSYCHOLOGY OF MOTIVATION. Hunger, Eating, and Health. Why do many people eat to much?. Reasons why People EAT. Survival Pleasure Serious personal and Health problems. EXCESSIVE EATING. DIABETES HYPERTENSION CARDIOVASCULAR CANCER Contrast.............. Anorexia Bulimia.

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biopsychology of motivation

BIOPSYCHOLOGY OF MOTIVATION

Hunger, Eating, and Health

reasons why people eat
Reasons why People EAT
  • Survival
  • Pleasure
  • Serious personal and Health problems
excessive eating
EXCESSIVE EATING ......
  • DIABETES
  • HYPERTENSION
  • CARDIOVASCULAR
  • CANCER

Contrast..............

Anorexia

Bulimia

what is hunger
What is hunger?
  • Motivation to eat...Reading the case of “Man Who Forgot Not to Eat”

Purpose of Hunger----- to increase the probability of eating and the primary purpose of eating is to supply the body with the molecular building blocks and energy it needs to survive and function (Blackburn 2001)

digestion
Digestion
  • The gastrointestinal process of breaking down the food and absorbing its constituents into the body.
output energy
OUTPUT: Energy
  • 3 forms
  • Lipids ----fats
  • Amino acids – proteins
  • Glucose-carbohydrates------starches and sugars
storing of energy
Storing of Energy
  • 3 forms
  • Fats
  • Glycogen
  • Proteins

-------consequences in the amt. Of stored fat

slide11

Glycogen

----largely stored in the liver and muscles

Glucose- the body main directly utilizable source of energy.

Why body preferred fat instead of glycogen

  • The gram of fat can store almost twice as much energy
  • The glycogen unlike fat attracts and holds substantial quantities of water.

Note: if fat were stored as glycogen , we will weigh over 275kilograms/ 600pds

3 phases of energy metabolism
3 PHASES OF ENERGY METABOLISM

Energy metabolism- the chemical changes by which energy is made available for an organism’s use)

  • CEPHALIC PHASE – The preparatory phase ----often begins with the sight, smell, or even just the thought of food and ends when the food starts to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
slide13

2. ABSORPTIVE PHASE- the period during which the energy absorbed into the bloodstream from the meal is meeting the body’s immediate energy needs.

3. FASTING PHASE-the period during which all of the unstored energy from the previous meal has been used and the body is withdrawing energy from its reserves to meet its immediate energy requirementd; it ends with the beginning of the next cephalic phase.

slide14

During the periods of rapid weight gain-----people go directly from one absorptive phase into the next cephalic phase------without experiencing an interviewing fasting phase.

2 pancreatic hormones
2 pancreatic hormones
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon

Insulin Functions:

  • It promotes the use of glucose as the primary source of energy by the body
  • It promotes the conversion of bloodborne fuels to forms that can be stored; glucose to glycogen and fat and amino acids to protiens.
slide16

3. it promotes the storage of glycogen in liver and muscle; fat in adipose tissue and proteins in muscle.

The phases are characterized by high blood levels of glucagon and low levels of insulin.

WHAT HAPPEN WITHOUT THE HIGH LEVELS OF INSULIN IN PROCESS?

answer
ANSWER
  • The glucose has difficulty entering most body cells; ; thus glucose stops being the body’s primary fuel.
  • The conversion of protein to glucose is called GLUCONEOGENESIS

While the glucagon in the fasting phase promote the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue and becomes the body’s primary fuel.

slide18

There is also the conversion of free fatty acids to ketones which are used by the muscles-----source of energy during the fasting phase.

What happen if we dont eat for an hour?

answer1
ANSWER
  • The brain will starts to use ketones
theories of hunger and eating
THEORIES OF HUNGER and EATING

Set points vs Positive incentives

Set Point Assumption

It is when the energy resources of the body are returned to their optimal level.

------when to eat again?

When the level of the body’s energy resources falls far enough below the set point, a person becomes motivated by hunger to initiate another meal.

slide21

The meal continues, acdg. To the set-point assumption, until the energy level returns to its set point and the person feels satiated ( no longer hungry).

Further,

ASSIUME that hunger and eating work in much the same way as a thermostat regulated heating system in a cool climate.

3 components of set point systems
3 components of set-point systems
  • Set point mechanism
  • Detector mechanism
  • Effector mechanism

-defines the set pt.

-detects deviations from the set point

-acts to eliminate the deviations--------------are the thermostat.

negative feedback systems
Negative feedback systems
  • Explain the process of Negative feedback systems?
glucostatic and lipostatic set point theories of hunger and eating
GLUCOSTATIC AND LIPOSTATIC SET-POINT THEORIES OF HUNGER AND EATING
  • RESEARCHER-

EATING is regulated by a system that is designed to maintain a blood glucose set point.

The idea -----we become hungry when our blood glucose levels drop significantly below their set point and that we become satiated when eating returns our blood glucose levels to their set point. GLUCOSTATIC THEORY

slide25

THE PURPOSE OF EATING ---- is to defend a blood glucose set point, bec. Glucose is the brains primary fuel.

  • LIPOSTATIC THEORY – another set-point theory that was proposed in various forms in the 1940 and 1950s.
slide26

Acdg--- every person has a set point for body fat, and deviations from this set point produce compensatory adjustments in the level of eating that return levels of body fat to their set point.

what are the problems with set point theories of hunger and eating
What are the problems with Set-Point theories of hunger and eating
  • Survival
  • Evidence
  • Deficient -----did not considered taste, learning and social influences
positive incentive theory
Positive-Incentive Theory
  • Anticipated pleasure of eating-----called positive incentive value
factors that determine what when how much we eat
Factors that determine What/when/how much We Eat
  • Taste preferences and aversion
  • Learning to eat vitamins and minerals
  • Premeal hunger
  • Conditioning
  • Satiety signals
  • Sham eating
slide30

Appetizer Effect and satiety

  • Serving Size and Satiety
  • Social influences and satiety
  • Sensory-specific satiety
brain
Brain
  • Two different regions
  • Ventromedial hypothalamus

a. Hyperphasia- excessive eating

b. Extreme obesity in rats

TWO DIFFERENT PHASES

  • Dynamic-after operation, excessive eating & weight gain
  • Static-stable
slide32

Lateral hypothalamus

  • Aphagia- a complete cessation of eating----accompanied by adipsia- a complete cessation of drinking.

What CCK?

prader willi syndrome patients with insatiable hunger
Prader-Willi Syndrome: patients with insatiable hunger
  • Results from an accident of chromosomal replication, experience insatiable hunger, little or no satiety and an exceptionally slow metabolism
regulation of body weight by changes in the efficiency of energy utilization
REGULATION OF BODY WEIGHT BY CHANGES IN THE EFFICIENCY OF ENERGY UTILIZATION
  • Diet induced thermogenesis- the mechanism by which the body adjust the efficiency of its energy utilization in response to its levels of body fat.
  • Basal metabolic rate- the rate at which energy is utilized to maintain bodily processes when resting.
obesity anorexia and bulimia nervosa
OBESITY/ANOREXIA and BULIMIA NERVOSA
  • Serotogenic agonists

reduce food consumption

  • ANOREXIA NERVOSA- disorder of underconsumption
  • BULIMIA NERVOSA- periods of not eating interrupted by bingeing and purging.
anorexia treatment of
ANOREXIA treatment of .....
  • Bradycardia-slow heart rate
  • Hypotension- low blood pressure
  • Hypothermia- low body temperature
  • Anemia- deficiency of red blood cells
bulimia treatment for
BULIMIA treatment for.....
  • Irritation and inflammation of the esophagus, vitamin and mineral deficiency, electrolyte imbalance, dehydration and acid reflux.