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Visual Impairments

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  1. Visual Impairments KNR 270

  2. Visual Impairments • What is visual acuity? • Amount of detail that can be seen • Clearness • What is visual field? • Entire area that can be seen at one time with fixed eyes • 180 degrees

  3. Visual Impairments • What do you think about when you hear that someone is blind? • What do you think they see? • What is your vision?

  4. Visual Impairments • Legal blindness • 20/200 in best eye with correction • Or visual field of 20 degrees at the widest point • Can be legally blind and still have some useable or functional vision • Most have some functional vision • Only 5% are totally blind

  5. At 20 feet, the person with 20/20 vision sees the stop sign clearly. At 20 feet, the person with 20/40 vision sees the stop sign as if they were 40 feet away.

  6. Visual Impairment • Congenital blindness • Birth – 5 years • No visual memory • After 5 years, there is visual memory that can help assist with learning

  7. Visual Impairments • Low vision • 20/70 – 20/200 • 30 degrees • 72% of people with visual impairments are over 65 years • Diabetes • Cataracts • Glaucoma • Blindisms

  8. Causes • Congenital • Acquired (infection) • Accidents • Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) • Premature infants, 100% oxygen • Detached retina • Retina detaches & rips from wall, creates blind spots • Diabetic retinopathy • Glaucoma • Increase pressure in eye, tunnel vision • Cataracts • Opacity of lens, infants & older people • Macular degeneration • Runs in families, problems with reading • Retinitis pigmentosa • Inherited

  9. Dog guide Only 5% Mobility

  10. White Cane Purpose Identify Probe Protection Mobility

  11. Human (Sighted) Guide Mobility

  12. Considerations/Accommodations • Ask how best help & about residual vision • Identify self / let know who is speaking • Speak directly to the person • Use normal voice volume • Introduce to group • Reduce loud or disturbing background noises

  13. Considerations/Accommodations • Never leave alone in space • Tell when leaving • Place near wall, table, chair • Orient to rooms / provide tours • Include restrooms, water fountains, emergency exits, main areas • Use clock or directions (N,S,W,E) • Landmarks • Reduce glare / good lighting

  14. Considerations/Accommodations • Use all senses in teaching • Be descriptive • Allow exploration/manipulation • Keep walkways clear of obstructions • Braille, larger text • Technology, Disability Concerns tour • Count out change • Adaptive equipment

  15. Considerations/Accommodations • Don’t touch guide dog • Use contrasting colors • Doors/walls • Step edges • Know human (sighted) guide • Places for dogs to potty • Others????

  16. Sports: Goal Ball • http://www.ncpad.org/competitive/fact_sheet.php?sheet=52&section=384

  17. http://www.nbba.org/rules/index.htm Sports: Beep Baseball

  18. What’s Your Bowling Preference?

  19. Tandem Bike Riding

  20. Fore!!!!

  21. Outdoor Adventure

  22. Around the Campfire

  23. Nature Hike

  24. Sensory Activities

  25. Worn Out in the Wild West

  26. Craft: Tactual Bandanas

  27. Hayride

  28. Games & Crafts

  29. I’ve Never Played Bingo Before

  30. Yum, Yum

  31. My Horse Will Be So Cool

  32. Is This Western Or English?

  33. Costumes

  34. Saying Goodbye