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Nutritional Requirement of Children. Young Children. Encourage young children to eat sit with children and encourage feed young children with the rest of the family do not hurry children try to feed children as soon as they are hungry do not feed when children are tired or sleepy

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nutritional requirement of children

Nutritional Requirement of Children

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

young children
Young Children
  • Encourage young children to eat
  • sit with children and encourage
  • feed young children with the rest of the family
  • do not hurry children
  • try to feed children as soon as they are hungry
  • do not feed when children are tired or sleepy
  • make mealtimes interesting
  • Check that the child is not sick

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

pre school children
Pre School Children
  • The best nutrition advise to keep your child healthy includes encouraging her to:
  • Eat a variety of foods
  • Balance the food you eat with physical activity
  • Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits
  • Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
  • Choose a diet moderate in sugars and salt
  • Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet their growing body's requirements.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide4

To ensure good nutrition in your child and that they grow up healthy, they will need to eat a large variety of food like :

Grain group; 1 slice bread,1/2 cup cereal,1/2 cooked rice –Minimum 6 servings from the grp

Vegetable group:1/2 cup chopped veg ,1 cup leafy veg – 3 servings

Fruit group: I piece of fruit ¾ cup of fruit juice 2 servings

Milk group :1 cup of milk or yoghurt-2 servings

Meat group:2-3 ounces of cooked meat/fish/poultryOR ½ cup cooked dry beans-2 servings

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide5

A NORMAL CHILD

B TALL & SLIM CHILD

A & B have same bodyweight.

B should get more food to reach appropriate weight for his height and continue linear growth

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

calcium and iron reqt
Calcium and Iron Reqt
  • Preschool age children require about 500 to 800 mg of calcium each day
  • Preschool age children require about 10 mg of iron each day. 

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide7

A NORMAL CHILD

B SHORT FAT CHILD

A & B have same weight. B is short and requires more exercise to get to appropriate weight for his height .

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

school going children
School Going Children
  • Nutritional needs at this stage in life
  • Three balanced meals
  • One to two snacks during the day
  • Fat in meals

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

how are the needs at this stage in life different than the other stages
How are the needs at this stage in life different than the other stages
  • School Age Children are still growing
  • They get to choose what to eat from the school lunch menu
  • They are influenced by their friends
  • They get to purchase snacks during and after school

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

diet plan
Diet Plan
  • Fats, Oils and SweetsNo more than 30% of your diet should come from fats. For a 1600 calorie diet, that would equal 53g of fat each day and for a 2200 calorie diet, 73g of fat each day
  • Milk, Yogurt and Cheese : School age child should have 2 to 3 servings of milk, yogurt and cheese each day.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

diet plan1
Diet Plan
  • Meat, Poultry, Fish , Dry Beans, Eggs and Nuts

Foods in this group provide protein, and vitamins and minerals, including B vitamins, iron and zinc. 2 to 3 servings of foods from this group each day, including the equivalent of 5 to 7 ounces of lean meat.

Vegetables : Vegetables supply you with vitamins, including vitamin A and C, minerals, such as iron and magnesium, and fiber. Plus they are low in fat. 2 to 4 servings of vegetables each day.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide12

Fruits :Fruits and 100% fruit juices provide Vitamin A and C and potassium. They are also low in fat and sodium. 2-4 servings of fruit each day.

Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta: Foods from this group provide complex carbohydrates (starches) , vitamins, minerals, and fiber. 6 to 11 servings of foods from this food group each day.

Calcium: School age children require about 800 mg of calcium each day.

Iron: Require about 10 to 12 mg of iron each day

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

nutritional needs of adolescents
Nutritional Needs of Adolescents

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide14

Big changes: Biological

    • Boys—get tall, lean, and dense (bones, that is)
      • Attain 15% of final adult ht during puberty
      • Lean body mass doubles
      • Large calorie needs—increase from 2,000 at 10 yr to 3,000 at 15 yr

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide15

Stay Tuned for Part 2

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide16

Girls—get taller and fatter

    • % body fat increases from the teens into the mid-20s
    • Gain almost 50% of their adult ideal weight 6-9 mo before ht rate increases during puberty
      • Dieting can have a negative impact on linear growth during this time
    • Calorie needs increase by only 200 from 10 yr to 15 yr

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

behaviors with less pronounced consequences
Behaviors with Less Pronounced Consequences
  • Eating choices
  • Physical activity and exercise
  • Affect adolescents’ sense of well-being, energy and health in the short term
  • Affect adult-onset chronic disease risk in the long term

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide18

Another form of Risk-Taking Behavior

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

nutrition issues in adolescent health
Nutrition Issues in Adolescent Health
  • Cardiovascular and cancer disease risk
  • Osteoporosis and bone mineralization
  • Overweight and obesity
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Eating disorders

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide20

The dramatic physical growth and development experienced by adolescents significantly increases their needs for energy, protein, vitamins and minerals

  • Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Skeletal Mass

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide21

Fiber

    • Recommended: Age + 5
    • Consume: ½ this amount
  • Fruits and vegetables-
    • high in fiber and low in fat and sodium
    • the least consumed food groups for teens
    • 1/4 eat 2 or more servings of fruit/d
    • <25% eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

a variety of factors contribute
A variety of factors contribute :

Genetics

Hormonal changes

Weight bearing exercise

Smoking

Alcohol consumption

Dietary intake of:

Calcium, Vitamin D , ProteinPhosphorus

Boron, Iron

  • Due to the content of bone (calcium, phosphorus, and protein), adequate intakes of these nutrients are especially important for optimal bone growth and development

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

eating away from home
Eating Away from Home
  • Teens directly spend more
    • in fast food restaurants
    • in food and snack stores
    • -78%in school
  • Fast foods tend to be low in Fe, Ca, riboflavin, vitamin C, and folic acid
  • More meals missed at home thus the choice of foods away is more important than the time or place

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

what influences adolescents food choices
What Influences Adolescents Food Choices?
  • Psychosocial
    • Strong Influences
      • Food preferences
        • Early childhood experiences, exposure, genetics
      • Taste and appearance
    • Weak influence
      • Health and nutrition
      • Due to the busy lives of adolescents, they don’t have much time to sit down and eat a meal. Snacking and skipping meals are commonplace among this age group

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

recommendation
Recommendation
  • Adolescents should be encouraged to make healthier choices while eating out such as:
  • Water, juice or milk instead of Soft drink
  • Small sandwiches instead of Large choices
  • Salad or baked potato instead of French fries
  • Grilled items instead of Fried items
  • Fruit and yogurt instead of Breakfast
  • parfait, fruit cup, or sandwiches
  • pancakes

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

recommendation1
Recommendation
  • Eating together as a family should be encouraged, as adolescents who eat family meals generally have higher intakes of:

Calcium

Fiber Iron

Vitamin A Vitamin C

Vitamin E Vitamin B6

Vitamin B12

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

dietary intake among adolescents
Dietary Intake among Adolescents

Protein :The protein needs of adolescents are influenced by the amount of protein required for maintenance of existing lean body mass, plus allowances for the amount required to accrue additional lean body mass during puberty.

Carbohydrates

The recommended daily allowance of carbohydrate for adolescents is 130g/day or 45-65% of daily energy needs.

Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should make up

the vast majority of this intake

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide28

Dietary Fiber

Dietary fiber is important for normal bowel function and may play a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancers, chronic artery disease, and diabetes. Adequate fiber intake is also thought to lower serum cholesterol levels, moderate blood glucose levels, and reduce the risk of obesity.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide29

Dietary Fat

The human body requires fat and fatty acids for normal growth and development

Two-thirds of teens meet the recommendations for total fat and saturated fat.

Calcium need and absorption rates are higher during adolescence than any other time except infancy.

Iron

The rapid rate of linear growth, the increase in blood volume, and the onset of menarche all increase the adolescent’s need for iron.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide30

Tips for TEENS

1 Make half your grains whole. Choose whole-grain foods, such as whole-wheat bread, oatmeal, brown rice, and lowfat popcorn, more often.

2 Vary your veggies. Go dark green and orange with your

Vegetables—eat spinach, broccoli, carrots, and sweet potatoes.

3 Focus on fruits. Eat them at meals, and at snack time, too.

Choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried, and go easy on the fruit juice.

4 Get your calcium-rich foods. To build strong bones serve

lowfat and fat-free milk and other milk products several times a day.

5 Go lean with protein. Eat lean or low fat meat, chicken, turkey,and fish. Also, change your tune with more dry beans and peas. Add chick peas, nuts, or seeds to a salad; pinto beans to a burrito; or kidney beans to soup.

6 Change your oil. We all need oil. Get yours from fish, nuts, and liquid oils such as corn, soybean, canola, and olive oil.

7 Don’t sugarcoat it. Choose foods and beverages that do not have sugar and caloric sweeteners as one of the first ingredients. Added sugars contribute calories with few, if any, nutrients.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide31

Eat Right

1 Set a good example. Be active and get your family to join you.

Have fun together. Play with the kids or pets. Go for a walk, tumble in the leaves, or play catch.

2 Take the Challenge as a family. Track your individual physical activities together and earn awards for active lifestyles .

3 Establish a routine. Set aside time each day as activity time—

walk, jog, skate, cycle, or swim. Adults need at least 30 minutes of

physical activity most days of the week; children 60 minutes everyday or most days.

4 Have an activity party. Make the next birthday party centered

on physical activity. Try backyard Olympics, or relay races. Have a

bowling or skating party.

5 Set up a home gym. Use household items, such as canned

foods, as weights. Stairs can substitute for stair machines.

6 Move it! Instead of sitting through TV commercials, get up and

move. When you talk on the phone, lift weights or walk around.

Remember to limit TV watching and computer time.

7 Give activity gifts. Give gifts that encourage physical

Activity—active games or sporting equipment.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

nutritional needs of old age
Nutritional Needs of Old age
  • Energy requirements
  • Energy requirements continue to fall with advancing age.
  • This is due to the decrease in lean body tissue, leading to a fall in basic metabolic rate (BMR).
  • Older people tend to be less active
  • It is important that the elderly continue to have a healthy diet and lifestyle such as walking, gardening, dancing in order to maintain a good appetite, maintain mobility and prevent obesity.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

nutritional reqt
Nutritional Reqt
  • Elderly people have reduced sensitivity to odour and mouth feel
  • Ageing alters saliva flow and composition
  • This affects ability to breakdown food, inhibits mixing, retards flavour release and makes swallowing difficult
  • Older people loose interest in food and food related activities
  • The motivation to seek variety in the diet may be reduced
  • Leads to consumption of a monotonous diet, reduced energy intake and deficiency in essential nutrients

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

nutritional reqt1
Nutritional Reqt
  • Protein: Is needed for repair of the body cells and therefore foods high in protein are required in the diet. Meat, milk, cereals, bread, nuts, beans etc.
  • Fat: Is needed as a source of energy and provides the fat soluble vitamins A,D,E and K. But too much saturated fat can lead to obesity and greater risks of Heart disease.
  • Carbohydrate: Most of the energy requirements come from carbohydrate foods such as starches and polysaccharides. But there should be a reduction in any form of sweets, buns, biscuits, fizzy drinks to reduce the risk of developing diabetes and HD.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide35

Fibre helps to prevent constipation which can be common in older people.

Iron: Eat iron rich foods such as red meat, oily fish, eggs, bread and green vegetables to prevent anaemia. Tannin in tea affects the absorption of Iron into the body

Vitamin A: Having to much vitamin A might increase the risk of bone fracture.

Vitamin D: is important for good bone health. It is needed for calcium absorption Older people may not get outside frequently to gain Vitamin D from sunlight. The efficiency of Vitamin D synthesis in the skin may decline with age. It is recommended that anyone over the 65 years takes a supplement of Vitamin D.

Vitamin B12: the absorption of this vitamin is decreased because the intrinsic factor needed for its absorption is thought to decrease with age.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide36

Vitamin C: needed to help fight disease needed particularly in old age when the immune system is weak . It also helps to absorb iron into the body to prevent anaemia. Fruits and Veg

Folic acid: needed for functions including cell divisions and good nerve function. They are found in green vegetables, brown rice and added to bread and breakfast cereals

Calcium: Osteoporosis is a major health issue for older people particularly women. This is where the bone density reduces and so the risk of fractures increases. Good sources are: Milk, cheese, yoghurt, canned fish, green leafy vegetables

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

factors affecting the nutritional status of older people
Factors affecting the nutritional status of older people
  • 3 groups of people who suffer from poor health: Elderly on a low income, Elderly living in institutions and those without their own teeth.
  • Ill health and medication conditions: Many older people modify their diet to control an illness such as diabetes, heart disease or conditions such as osteoporosis.
  • Evidence that oxidative damage may be involved in the formation and progression of cataracts and age related - which can lead to loss of vision. There is a link between these conditions and the lack of antioxidant nutrients

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

factors
Factors
  • Poor Dentition: Older people who does not have their natural teeth or had very few teeth ate more restricted foods influenced by their inability to chew. They are less likely to choose foods that are hard to chew such as apples, raw carrots, nuts and oranges.
  • Drug – nutrient interaction, alcohol reducing the absorption of nutrients. Drugs affect appetite, saliva production and digestion. Aspirin interferes with the absorption of Vitamin C.
  • Mobility and physical movement- People with health problems such as arthritis have difficulty shopping, preparing and cooking food.
  • Poverty and economics uncertainty: Older people may not be financially stable to buy a lot of food and they may be on a strict budget due to their benefits or pension.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

factors1
Factors
  • Constipation: more common in older people this may be due to the inadequate intake of dietary fibre. Also a reduction in physical activity may contribute to this condition.
  • Fluid intake: The sensation of thirst is often diminished in older people. They also limit their intake of fluid to stop them from running to the toilet a lot. Dehydration can occur which can lead to mental confusion, headaches and irritability.
  • Drink 6-8 glasses of fluid each day in the form of water, tea, milk, coffee and fruit juice.

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

role of supplementation in the diet of older people
Role of supplementation in the diet of older people
  • Many older people are not getting adequate nourishment from the foods they eat and are at increased risk of serious health problems requiring hospitalization, Women cover their heads –religious reasons
  • They need a vitamin D supplement as they may not get adequate amounts from food and sunlight

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide41

Vitamin D and calcium supplements will prevent osteoporosis which will lead to less fractures and falls by older people.Vitamin C: may need a vitamin C supplement as they may not be able to chew the fruits and vegetables which provide the vitamin C or they may not be able to afford the fruit and vegetables. Also vitamin C supplement will help with the absorption of Iron to prevent anaemia

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10

slide42

Vitamin B12 supplement: Vitamin B12 is got from animal foods such as meat. The elderly may find it difficult to chew and digest meat.Folate supplement: can lower the risk of heart disease which is a common disease among older people

Meal Planning Facilitator: Jasmina S std 10