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The Impact Of Dietary Habits On Nutritional Status Of Children In India . Dr. B. Sesikeran, MD, FAMS Director National Institute of Nutrition (Indian Council of Medical Research) Hyderabad – 500 604 E-mail: sesikeran@gmail.com.

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slide1

The Impact Of Dietary Habits On Nutritional Status Of Children In India

Dr. B. Sesikeran, MD, FAMS

Director

National Institute of Nutrition

(Indian Council of Medical Research)

Hyderabad – 500 604

E-mail: sesikeran@gmail.com

infant mortality rate per 1000 live births in india and south east asian countries
Infant Mortality Rate (Per 1000 Live Births) in India and South-east Asian Countries

Source : WHO/SEARO 2000

58 *

*

* SRS, Registrar General of India, 2004

prevalence of low birth weight in india and south east asian countries
Prevalence of Low Birth Weight in India and South-east Asian Countries

*

Source : WHO/SEARO 2000

23 (NFHS 2)

* Increase in Institutional Deliveries

slide4

Uttar Pradesh

Gujarat

Madhya Pradesh

West Bengal

Maharashtra

Orissa

Andhra Pradesh

Karnataka

Kerala

Tamilnadu

NATIONAL NUTRITION MONITORING BUREAU (Estd: 1972)

  • Objectives of NNMB
  • Assessment of Nutritional status of various communities by adopting standardized procedures and techniques
  • Periodical evaluation of National Nutrition programs operation in India
average daily food intake rda among 1 3 year children by gender
Average Daily Food Intake (% RDA) among 1-3 Year Children : By Gender

Percent RDA

median intake of nutrients as rda among 1 3 year children by gender
Median Intake of Nutrients (as % RDA) Among 1-3 year children : By gender

Percent of RDA

average daily food intake rda among 4 6 year children by gender
Average Daily Food Intake (% RDA) among 4-6 Year Children : By Gender

Percent RDA

median intake of nutrients as rda among 4 6 year children by gender
Median Intake of Nutrients (as % RDA) Among 4-6 year children : By gender

Percent of RDA

slide10
Prevalence (%) of Undernutrition Among 1-5 yr children According to SD Classification (<Median - 2SD): By Gender

Percent

prevalence of undernutrition among 5 years children according to weight for age iap classification
Prevalence of Undernutrition among <5 years children according to Weight for Age (IAP classification)

Faulty BF

Faulty Complementary feeding

micro nutrient deficiencies

MICRO-NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES

slide14

Madhya Pradesh

1.4

Orissa

0.3

West Bengal

0.6

Maharashtra

1.3

Andhra Pradesh

1.2

Pooled: 0.7%

Karnataka

0.7

< 0.5 %

 0.5 %

Tamil Nadu

0.5

Kerala

0

Prevalence (%) of Bitot spots among

1 - <5 year children

Boys: 0.9% Girls 0.6%

slide15

Prevalence (%) of Bitot Spots among 1 - <5 yrs. Children

* WHO cut-off level (0.5%) of Public Health significance

slide16

Distribution (%) of 1- 5 Yr. Children with Blood Vit. A Levels of < 20 G/dL, Median Dietary Intake of Vit. A (as % RDA) and

Extent of Coverage for Suppl. of Massive Dose Vit. A – By State

Source: NNMB-MND Survey : 8 States, 2003

definition of anemia
Definition of Anemia

WHO, Nutritional Anemia - TRS No. 405, Geneva 1968.

slide18

AETIOLOGY OF IDA

DIETARY FACTORS

LOW INTAKE OF DIETARY IRON

  • ABSORPTION
  • DIETARY FACTORS
  • Promoters
  • Inhibitors
  • HOST FACTORS
  • Iron Status
  • Health Status
  • INFECTIONS & INFESTATIONS
  • Malaria
  • Hook Worm
  • Schistosomiasis

HAEMORRHAGIC CONDITIONS

IRON DEFICIENCY

  • PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
  • Menarche
  • Pregnancies with

Lack of adequate

interval

  • HAEMOLYTIC DISORDERS
  • Sickle Cell Disease
  • Thalassemia

IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA

slide19

Prevalence (%) of Anaemia by Age, Gender & Physiological Groups

10.2

0.03

11.2

0.03

11.0

0.03

9.9

0.03

10.6

0.03

10.7

1.99

12.6

2.09

Mean ±SE

> 6 months

< 6 months

slide22

Madhya Pradesh

4.3

West Bengal

9.0

Orissa

0.1

Maharashtra

12.2

Andhra Pradesh

3.8

Pooled: 3.9

Karnataka

1.9

< 5 %

> 5 %

Tamil Nadu

0

Kerala

0.6

Prevalence (%) of IDD among 6 – 11 Year Children

Source: MND-NNMB, Tech Rep 22, 2003

slide24

Percent of Households consuming salt having adequate

Amount (≥15 ppm) of Iodine

* By spot test

distribution of children by undernutrition and period of survey
Distribution (%) of Children by Undernutrition and Period of Survey

Percent

UNDERNUTRITION (< Median - 2SD)

slide26

Trends in poverty line estimates and Prevalence of

Undernutrition among 1-5 yr. Children (According to SD Classification Using NCHS Standards)

Source :- BPL : Economic survey and

NNMB Surveys

slide27

overweight

obese

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-age boys aged 5-17 years by global region

35

30

25

20

Prevalence (%)

15

10

5

0

Europe

Americas

Worldwide

Asia-Pacific

Near/middle East

Sub-Sahara Africa

slide30

Various practices among overweight and non-overweight urban Adolescents in Andhra Pradesh

NIN-WHO Technical Report 2007

slide32

Conclusion

  • Despite rapid progress in the area of food production, the intake of food and nutrients continues to be deficient, both in terms of quantity and quality
  • Prevalence of LBW is about 30%, and about 55% of preschool children are underweight and 50% are stunted.
  • Even though, the prevalence of undernutrition is significantly declining over a period of 3 decades, still the current prevalence is exceptionally high.
  • MNDs such as IDA VAD and IDD continues to be of public
  • health problem.
  • The coverage for vitamin A and IFA tablets supplementation was poor
slide33

Conclusion (Contd..)

  • The prevalence of overweight and obesity is significantly increasing over a period of 3 decades even among rural population, which is the major independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome.
  • Prevalence of overweight and obesity is considerably high, especially when Asian cut of levels were used (≥23 BMI).
  • India is passing through a critical phase i.e. ‘double burden

of disease’.

  • One fourth of our rural adults are suffering from hypertension About 5-6% of the adults have IGT/DM.