optical answers to grid questions
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OPTICAL ANSWERS TO GRID QUESTIONS. Karen McPherson C.S. Major Radford University. SOURCE. “Grid-Controlled Lightpaths for High Performance Grid Applications"

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optical answers to grid questions


Karen McPherson

C.S. Major

Radford University

  • “Grid-Controlled Lightpaths for High Performance Grid Applications"
  • Authors: Raouf Boutaba, Wojciech Golab, Youssef Iraqi, Tianshu Li, and Bill St. Arnaud published by Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.
  • Information as well as quoted material is from this source.
  • Definitions
  • Introduction
  • Architecture
  • Security
  • Conclusion
  • Q & A
  • Wavelength Division Multiplexing: Technology by which optical lines are divided for traffic by wavelength
  • Dark fiber: Installed but unused fiber-optic cable
  • Lightpath Object: An abstraction of one or more lightpaths representing a connection between two or more switches
  • Question: What is the best network support for the data intensive nature of grids?
  • Answer: Optical networks
capacity cost
Capacity & Cost
  • Optical networks provide the speed, reliability, and capacity ideal for huge data transfer
  • Emergence of new technologies such as WDM reduces cost of implementation
  • Existence of a great deal of currently available dark fiber reduces costs further
Problem: Existing optical resource management systems – implemented over the internet - are too slow and unreliable
  • Solution: “User-Controlled Lightpath Management System”


Grid Application

User Access Layer

Service Provisioning Layer

Resource Management Layer

Physical Layer

Cross-connect devices and lightpaths


Figure 1. The User Controlled Lightpath Management System is represented by three main layers: User Access Layer (UAL), Service Provisioning Layer (SPL), and the Resource Management Layer (RML)

user access layer ual
User Access Layer (UAL)
  • Uses an HTML interface
  • Incorporates many XML and web based tools by implementing Java Web Services Developer Pack from Sun Microsystems
  • Main role is to translate user requests into operations on the services in the Service Provisioning Layer
service provisioning layer spl
Service Provisioning Layer (SPL)
  • Consists of Globus Toolkit 3.0 and JBoss application server
  • XML based framework – application / platform independence
  • Maintains information on LPOs and users in a relational database
  • Main role is to provide services by manipulating Lightpath Objects (LPO)
resource management layer rml
Resource Management Layer (RML)
  • Each cross-connect device is represented by a “Resource Agent”
  • Main role is to provide control over the individual devices
  • Incorporates the ability to customize system control with Java byte code
    • For example: creating your own monitoring policies
spl services
SPL Services
  • These services - provided as grid services - manage the LPO resources
  • A Lightpath Object is just that – an object. It contains fields for:
    • a unique ID
    • the IDs of the current and previous owner
    • advertisement and lease expiry dates
    • a status indicating whether the LPO is reserved for use by the owner or has been advertised, partitioned, or concatenated and
    • bandwidth in kbps
    • hardware parameters
spl services cont
SPL Services (cont)
  • CreateRootLPO: This is the basic service managed by the appropriate administrators and utilizes the root LPOs mentioned in the previous section
  • AdvertiseLPO and LeaseLPO: Ownership of lightpaths is transferred by means of “leasing”
  • PartitionLPO and ConcatenateLPO: These services are key in creating division and formation of lightpath bandwidths
spl services cont1
SPL Services (cont)
  • AccessLPO: This service prepares a particular path for data traffic
  • ReconfigureLPO: This service is used for lightpath access policy control
  • EstablishEndToEndLPO: This service uses those above to form lightpaths, i.e., forming a path of a specific bandwidth between specific endpoints
  • The foundation of the security defense presented by this research is achieved by capitalizing on the Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) supplied by Globus Toolkit 3.0
gsi security
GSI Security
  • mutual authentication - based on public key encryption and Secure Socket Layer
  • transport layer security - httpg
  • message layer security - XML encryption
custom security
Custom Security
  • GSI insufficient to deal with user privileges in this lightpath management system
  • Researches implemented an additional, separate authorization mechanism
  • Implementing their own control allowed the researchers to add a customization feature to this authorization.
  • The solution offered by “Grid-Controlled Lightpaths for High Performance Grid Applications” does appear to confirm optical answers to grid questions
  • The solution delivers grid level data transfer at a realistic cost
  • The management offered by this research also seems to address grid needs - by using a “grid-centric” approach such as the services provided in the SPL, this system may be utilized by grid applications in a very innate way