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Introduction to College Writing. Descriptive Essay. Brainstorming (Ideas). Audience - Handout Purpose Objective Subjective Detail Sensory Detail - 5 Senses Brainstorm Handout Dominant impression. Organization. Order of lmportance At first Foremost Last Primarily Second.

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brainstorming ideas
Brainstorming (Ideas)
  • Audience - Handout
  • Purpose
    • Objective
    • Subjective
  • Detail
    • Sensory Detail -5 Senses Brainstorm Handout
    • Dominant impression
  • Order of lmportance
  • At first
  • Foremost
  • Last
  • Primarily
  • Second


  • Above
  • Below
  • Beside




At that time






  • Write a 3 page essay on some person, place, or thing.
  • Look at p. 321 for essay topics
elements of a narrative
Elements of A narrative
  • Narration: a kind of writing that tells a story, real or imaginative
  • Plot: a sequence of events that occurs
  • Setting: the time and place
  • Point of View:
    • 1st person – Speaks directly to reader: uses pronoun I
    • 3rd person – All knowing perspective: uses he, she, it.
brainstorming ideas1
Brainstorming (Ideas)
  • Subject: Select Subject of your Narrative
  • Prewriting Techniques: Use these to brainstorm
    • Listing
    • Freewriting
    • Concept Mapping
defining purpose and audience
Defining Purpose and Audience
  • Purpose: goal of the narrative
    • To inform
    • To entertain
    • To make a point
    • To present a truth
  • Audience: what group you are writing for
  • Audience and Purpose Handout
  • Gather Information:
    • 1st Ask questions about your narrative.
      • Questions to Explore Handout
    • 2nd Collect Narrative Details
      • Narrative Charts Handout
  • Limit your scope for the paper.
  • Narrative Outline:
    • Follow a logical time sequence
    • (Flashbacks may be used but talk to me first as the voice is hard to control.)
  • Handout
  • Transitions: Use transitions that help with moving from idea to the next:
    • After, finally, meanwhile, soon, until
  • Dialogue: quote word for word and enclose in quotation marks.
    • When writing a narrative, begin a new paragraph when:
      • Conversation is introduced
      • The speaker changes
      • The narrative resumes after dialogue
      • The scene changes
      • You, as a writer, move from one character to another for any length of time.
  • Indirect quotations: summarizes what someone said. Do not use quotations.
  • Dashes: a strong dramatic punctuation mark
    • Do not use as a substitute for a comma, semicolon, or parentheses.
    • Use to achieve the following:
      • Abrupt change of thought
      • Set off a nonessential appositive
      • To set off a parenthetical expression (an expression in parentheses)

Parentheses: used instead of a comma to offset material. (Commas are usually the appropriate choice)

    • Use to achieve the following:
      • Set off asides
      • Set off numerical information
      • When a phrase interrupts a sentence
      • When a question interrupts a sentence
      • The period goes after the parentheses
  • Brackets: used to enclose a word or phrase added by a writer to words of another
    • Use for the following reasons:
      • To enclose words you insert in quotations when quoting someone else
      • To omit words when used with an ellipses […]
  • In Class: Read Example
    • Discuss Reading
  • Complete all handouts
  • Write a 3 page narrative on approved topic.
point by point pattern
Point by Point Pattern

Thesis: Topic + Opinion: Good Shepherd

Point 1: Guidance

A. Good Shepherd

B. Bad Shepherd

Point 2: Protection

A. Good Shepherd

B. Bad Shepherd

Point 3: Nourishment

A. Good Shepherd

B. Bad Shepherd

Conclusion: Restate thesis. Draw conclusions

point by point
Point By Point
  • Make a smooth transition from subject A to subject B in each discussion
  • Be consistent – always introduce subjects in same order
  • Start with least important or “powerful” topic and move to the most “powerful” topic
block pattern
Block Pattern

Thesis: Topic + Opinion: Good Shepherd

Block A: Good Shepherd

1. Guidance

2. Protection

3. Nourishment

Block B: Bad Shepherd

1. Guidance

2. Protection

3. Nourishment

Conclusion: Restate the thesis.

block pattern1
Block Pattern
  • Discuss the points in the same order for each subject.
  • In Block B, refer to Block A’s discussion of the subject.
  • Without connecting the ideas it will seem like two separate mini-essays.

Venn Diagram (John 10)

  • Divide up your topic so that you can clearly see what the comparisons are.

Which pattern to choose?

  • Block Pattern
    • Good for an overall picture of the topic
  • Point by Point Pattern
    • Good for arguments

Decide on a good Thesis.

  • Thesis = Topic + Opinion

(Construct one based on John 10)

  • Construct an Outline
    • See Handout
  • Assignment: Compare and Contrast a Biblical Character to a modern man or woman of God.

(3-4 paged paper)

mla format
MLA format
  • In-text citations
    • Author page method
      • Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).
      • Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).
mla format1
MLA Format
  • Works Cited list
    • On a separate page at the end of your research paper.
    • Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page.
    • Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries.
    • Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent.
mla format2
MLA Format

Electronic Sources

  • Author and/or editor names (if available)
  • Article name in quotation marks (if applicable)
  • Title of the Website, project, or book in italics.
  • Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers.
  • Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
  • Take note of any page numbers (if available).
  • Medium of publication.
  • Date you accessed the material.
  • URL (if required, or for your own personal reference).
mla format3
MLA Format

Example Works Cited Citation

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth

Century England.” Historical Journal 50.1 (2007): 173-96.

ProQuest. Web. 27 May 2009.

  • You may use online citing tools
    • Son of Citation Machine
    • Noodle Tools
  • Warning!
    • If you don’t choose the right template, then you will get the wrong citation.


  • Databases: In Library
    • Online databases:
    • Ebscohost
    • Academic Search Premier
  • Primary Sources
    • Books
    • Magazines
    • Articles
  • Not Acceptable
    • Wikipedia
  • Compare and Contrast a biblical character to a man or woman in modern times who has advanced the house of God.
  • 3-4 pages long
  • MLA format with Works Cited list
cause and effect1
Cause and effect
  • Cause: an event or condition that produces a result
    • Cause asks: Why did X happen?
  • Effect: the result of an event or condition
    • Effect asks: What did Y produce?
  • Not simply related by time.
    • Simple time relationship - one event merely follows another with no causal relationship.
  • Cause and Effect relationships are closely linked.
    • One event causes the other to happen.
  • Immediate causes and effects:
    • The immediate cause that is perceived when an event occurs.
    • I.e. (effect) The lesson was divinely inspired.
  • Underlying causes and effects:
    • The lasting cause or effect that is perceived when an event or result occurs.
    • I.e. (effect) My faith is built as each prayer is answered.
brainstorming ideas2
Brainstorming (Ideas)
  • 1st narrow your topic and decide whether to stress causes or effects
  • Partner:
    • Think Pair Share
    • Read “Corn-Pone Opinions”
    • List cause and effects
    • Share finding with the group
  • Options –


    • Cause Effect
    • Cause Effect Cause Effect
    • Cause Effect
drafting the essay
Drafting the Essay
  • Create an Outline!!!!
  • Thesis: Presents the topic.
    • At bottom of Introduction paragraph
    • Body
      • 1st sentence presents the topic
      • All sentences in that paragraph support the topic
      • 1 topic per paragraph
      • Start with least important cause or effect and go to the most important cause or effect
    • Conclusion: Restate Thesis
      • Tie up loose ends
      • Make a conclusion about the cause or effect.
      • Present underlying causes or effect.

Things to avoid

  • Don’t oversimplify.
  • Don’t confuse causal relationships with time relationships.
  • Avoid circular logic.
    • i.e. There aren’t enough parking spaces for students on campus because there are too many cars (265).
    • Restates what is implied.
    • Better statement: There aren’t enough parking spaces for students on campus because the parking permits are not distributed fairly (265)
mla format4
MLA format

When to Cite a Source

  • Use evidence (citations) any time you make a claim that is not based on a well-known fact or common knowledge.
  • Make a claim that could be challenged.
  • Quote a source.
  • Paraphrase information from a source (give the meaning but change the wording).
  • Make a specific claim that is not common knowledge.
  • Provide an authoritative (expert) opinion.
  • Got an idea from somebody else, even through email or conversation.
mla format5
MLA format
  • Examples of Claims You Should Support
  • Hot water can freeze faster than cold water.
  • Poodles are friendlier than Dalmatians.
  • Eating while driving is more dangerous than talking on the cell phone while driving.
  • Always support the Bible
mla format6
MLA Format

When You Don't Need to Cite a Source

  • Common Knowledge or Well-Known Facts
  • Common knowledge is basically a fact that practically everyone knows. (Not everyone knows the Bible!!! However, most know the story of Jesus dying on the cross).
    • George Washington was a U.S. president.
  • A well-known fact is something that many people know, but it is also something that a reader could look up easily if he/she didn't know that information.
    • It's best to plant flowers in the early spring.
  • When in doubt cite, cite, cite!!!

A good rule of thumb for any writer is to use a citation when you're not certain whether or not is necessary. The only risk in doing this is littering your paper with unnecessary citations. Simply trust your own judgment.

  • An argument is an ordered presentation of support for a position that you want others to accept.
  • An argument consists of:
    • Opening statement of position
    • Any background information
    • Evidence to support your position
    • Concluding statement
    • (Optional) Rebuttal statement section in which opposing arguments are answered. Usually this section comes before the concluding statement.
  • 1st clearly and unemotionally indicate whether you are for or against what is being discussed.
  • 2nd give background information a reader might need in order to follow your argument
brainstorming prewriting
  • Identify your topic. (Topic should be picked out)

Must have a serious and consistent stance

i.e. Topic: Bible as literature in public schools.

  • Consider your Purpose
    • This is your topic and why you want to communicate it to others.
  • Consider your Audience
    • General or Specific audience
  • Handout
brainstorming prewriting1

2. Identify the support for topic

There are 2 kinds of support:

  • Fact: is something known to be true
    • Reliable evidence in support of a position
  • Opinion: personal judgment based on what one person believes or feels to be true.
    • People may disagree with an opinion
    • Sound Opinion: based on accurate facts
    • Authoritative Opinion: one that comes from a reliable source.
  • Decide which points of argument to include

Supporting Evidence Handout

  • Decide on tone.
    • Goal is to persuade, not alienate
    • Avoid preaching. Be real
    • Avoid over intellectualizing. Be real
    • Be logical, sincere, and informed
  • Develop / Revise Position Statement:

(Topic + Opinion)

i.e. The proposal that our city host the next Olympic Games should be defeated.

  • Decide which points of argument to include
    • Supporting Evidence Handout
    • Examples of Supporting Evidence
  • Choose method of reasoning
    • Inductive Reasoning: you move from specific facts to a general conclusion
      • Generalize based on those facts
    • Deductive Reasoning: start with generalization, state a related truth or fact, and then arrive to conclusion based on that truth.
      • Generalization leads to facts
  • Identify whether your statement is fact or opinion
  • Present evidence in a clear and logical order.

2 Basic Methods

  • Pattern A:
    • Present your points
    • Then counterpoints
  • Pattern B:
    • Present counterpoints
    • Then your rebuttal points


  • Pattern C: 2 for 1
    • Present your point and evidence, which also refutes your opposition
    • Present second point and repeat
  • Use transitions between each point! Should lead to the next.
    • To Present Evidence

First, second, third, For instance

Most importantly the facts show that

For example according to

    • To state your Opinion

In my opinion from my point of view

I believe that in my experience

    • To Deal with Conflicting Opinions

although in opposition to

even though in contrast to

conversely still

  • Answering Arguments
    • You want to include a rebuttal. This can make your opinion seem or sound more authoritative.
    • Recognize the opposing view
    • Counter with your own counterpoints

I.e. Opponents of offering this class suggest that it will increase religious tension in the classroom, favor one particular faith over another, and hinder the learning process by presenting bias into the school environment. However, research has proven that the literature course can be taught in a non-bias manner and focus solely on elements of literature that are foundational to English language learning.

  • Concluding Statement
    • Restate your opening position
    • Summarize evidence

i.e. In conclusion, the immediate benefits of learning literature from the pages of the Bible as well as the positive long term effects that this literature teaches should be carefully weighed by the legislature this year when they vote on introducing the Bible as literature in the classroom.

  • Choose appropriate outline for argument
    • Handout
  • Stereotypes: overgeneralizations
  • Bandwagon: because “everyone else is doing it”
  • Name-calling: attacking the character of a person
  • Testimonial: an attempt at persuasion based on someone’s testimony of a famous person.
  • Red Herring: a second issue thrown in to distract issue from the first issue.
  • Either or fallacy: over simpification that takes only two choices into account
  • Faulty Cause and Effect: establishes false cause and effect connection
  • Hypostatization: uses an abstract concept as if it were concrete
  • Straw man: argues with the weakest counterpoint
  • Quick fix: leans too heavily on catchy phrases or empty slogans
  • Faulty analogy: uses extended comparisons as proof of a point
research steps
Task Definition: What do I need to do?

Location & Access: Where can I find it?

Use the Information: Read, listen, view, take notes, organize

Synthesis: Brainstorm, Rough draft, Revise, Final

Evaluation: Review paper

Presentand Publish Final Paper

Research Steps
step 1 task definition
Step 1: Task Definition
  • What do I want to research?
  • Identify What you already know
  • Identify Essential Questions
    • Essential Questions Handout:
    • Developing a Guiding Question
    • Developing Supporting Questions
step 2 location access
Step 2: Location & Access
  • Where can I find it?
  • List 5 possible sources in which to find information
    • Primary
    • Secondary
  • List ten key words related to topic
    • Boolean Search terms p. 367
    • Good for keyword searches
step 2 location access1
Step 2: Location & access

Search for sources

  • Library and Databases
    • Databases
    • Boolean Search methods p.367
      • And, Or, Not, Near
    • Google Scholar
  • Evaluating Web Resources
    • Web Page Evaluation form

Evaluate the following sites:

    • Martin Luther King Jr. website
    • Martin Luther King Jr. website
step 3 use the information
Step 3: use the information
  • Read, listen, view, take notes, organize
  • Read a variety of sources:
    • Primary
      • Books
      • Journal Articles (Peer Reviewed) - 2 for this project
      • Original Documents
    • Secondary
      • Research studies
      • Journal Articles (non Peer Reviewed)
  • Take Notes
    • Enote cards: view shared link
  • Convert in to useable format
    • Photocopy
    • Print off
    • Take notes; highlight; paraphrase
    • Organize and eliminate
step 3 use the information1
Step 3: Use the information
  • Organize Notes into topics
    • Background
    • Past Influence
    • Current Influence
  • Annotated Bibliography – (A note)
    • Brief summary of the article or source
      • Quoted material
      • Paraphrase vs. Summary
    • Notes on what you find interesting, noteworthy, or necessary for the paper p. 381
    • Evaluate the validity of the source
  • Format:
    • Title Sections
    • Hanging Indent for entire work
    • See Example
step 4 synthesize information
Step 4: Synthesize Information
  • Brainstorm to begin writing process
  • Draft a thorough outline
  • Write rough draft
    • Organize ideas
    • Answer research question/thesis
  • Edit and revise
    • Follow MLA format
  • Write final draft
step 5 evaluation
Step 5: Evaluation
  • Edit for correctness
  • Consider: Did my paper answer my essential research question?
  • Peer/ Self Review: Check
    • Is my paper formatted correctly?
    • Transitions
    • Clear order to paper: Introduction, Body, Conclusion
step 6 present and publish
Step 6: Present and Publish
  • Present and Publish final paper!!!