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Civil Contingencies Planning from a Shetland Perspective. John Taylor Emergency Planning Officer Shetland Islands Council. Motor Tanker “Braer”. Civil Defence to Civil Protection Civil Defence Act 1948 to Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (Contingency Planning)(Scotland) Regulations 2005.

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civil contingencies planning from a shetland perspective

Civil Contingencies Planningfrom aShetland Perspective

John Taylor

Emergency Planning Officer

Shetland Islands Council

Civil Defence to Civil Protection

Civil Defence Act 1948


Civil Contingencies Act 2004

(Contingency Planning)(Scotland) Regulations 2005

List of Major Incidents

30/12/78 – ss “Esso Bernicia” loss,174 tons heavy fuel & damage to jetties

31/07/79 – BAe 748 Aircraft, didn’t get airborne, 17 dead

06/11/86 – Chinook Helicopter, crashed into the sea, 45 dead

25/07/90 – Sikorsky Helicopter struck Brent Spar platform, 6 dead

01/01/92 – Extreme severe weather, 2 dead

14/03/92 – Super Puma crashed into sea off Cormorant Alpha, 11 dead

05/01/93 – mt “Braer”, total loss of vessel, no loss of life but 85,000 tons of oil

29/07 – 09/08/93 – Klondyker “Chernomorskaya Slava” Fire onboard

List of Major Incidents

09/11/93 – Klondyker “Lunakhods” – 60 rescued by helicopter in extreme weather

17/11/93 – Klondyker “Borodinskoye Polye” – 155 rescued by lifeboat & helicopter

25/08/94 – Klondyker “Seda” Fire onboard during oil spill response exercise

31/10/94 – Klondyker “Pionersk” 156 rescued, fuel oil & 12 tons ammonia in the sea

07/11/94 – Klondyker “Vagula” lifeboat capsized, 17 rescued, 1 dead

20/05/97 – Air Ambulance Crash, 1 dead, 1 severely injured & 1 with no injuries

19/11/97 – Freighter “Green Lily”, severe weather, 15 rescued, winchman lost but later recovered dead

19/09/03 – 8 miles of multiple landslides & flooding, roads blocked & washed away, no injuries

08/01/07 – Acetylene cylinder fire in Lerwick, offices, restaurants, shops and flats evacuated for 24 hours

definition of emergency
Definition of “Emergency”

“An event or situation that threatens serious damage

to human welfare in a place in the UK, or

to the environment of a public place in the UK, or

war or terrorism which threatens serious damage to the security of the UK.”

To constitute an emergency this event or situation must require the implementation of special arrangements by one or more Category 1 responder.

shetland emergency planning forum comprises both category 1 and 2 responders
Shetland Emergency Planning ForumComprises both Category 1 and 2 Responders:

Category 1

  • Local Authority
  • Health Board
  • Police
  • Fire
  • Ambulance
  • Maritime & Coastguard Agency
  • Scottish Environment Protection Agency

Represents Shetland Emergency Planning Forum Executive

shetland emergency planning forum comprises both category 1 and 2 responders1
Shetland Emergency Planning ForumComprises both Category 1 and 2 Responders:

Category 2

  • Utilities
  • Harbour Authorities
  • Ferry Operators
  • Airport Operators
  • Public Communications Providers
  • Voluntary Organisations

Represents full Shetland Emergency Planning Forum

civil contingencies act 2004 contingency planning scotland regulations 2005
Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (Contingency Planning) (Scotland) Regulations 2005

Duties under the Act:

  • Assess local risks and use to inform emergency planning – Community Risk Register
  • Put in place emergency plans
  • Put in place Business Continuity Management arrangements
  • Provide advice and assistance to businesses and Voluntary organisations about Business Continuity
civil contingencies act 2004 contingency planning scotland regulations 20051
Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (Contingency Planning) (Scotland) Regulations 2005
  • Put in place arrangements to “warn and inform” the public about civil protection matters and advise in the event of a major emergency without causing alarm
  • Share information with other local responders
  • Co-operate with other local responders
  • Multi-agency training and exercising

All elements of “Integrated Emergency Management”

integrated emergency management
Integrated Emergency Management

An approach to prevention and managing emergencies,

with five key activities:

  • Assessment
  • Prevention
  • Preparation
  • Response
  • Recovery

Risk assessment is the first step in the process

Community Risk Register (CRR)

Dynamic risk assessment is also an important activity during the response phase of an incident. Secondary hazards, risk reduction and health and safety must not be forgotten because we are responding to an emergency

community risk register how does it work
Community Risk Register – How does it work?

What if? Seeks to identify risks, hazards & threats

What then? The likelihood and impact (consequences) of events are assessed

So what? Evaluates the significance of the risks and their relevance to the local area

Then what? Take steps to manage the risks

  • Probable (5): Likely within within the next few months;
  • Possible (4): Likely sometime in the coming year or so;
  • Unlikely (3): Could occur but not in the immediate future;
  • Rare (2): Mildly surprised, but cannot be ruled out;
  • Negligible (1): Very surprised, but cannot be entirely ruled out
  • Catastrophic (5):
  • Significant (4):
  • Moderate (3):
  • Minor (2):
  • Insignificant (1):

Values are assigned to each hazard depending on the community for which the register is being prepared.

impact nine hazards
Impact – Nine Hazards
  • Personal Safety;
  • Property loss or damage;
  • Failure to provide statutory service;
  • Financial loss or increased cost of working;
  • Disruption in Service (days);
  • Personal privacy infringement;
  • Environmental;
  • Community;
  • Embarrassment;
risk assessment
Risk Assessment

Two elements – Likelihood x Impact


The measures to be taken to eliminate, isolate or reduce identified risks as far as reasonably practicable

Flood Defences

Annual Flu Vaccinations

Booming for Pollution Control


Planning Must take place at all levels within a community to provide the basis for an integrated response

Training People / staff must be trained so they know what is expected of them

Exercising Allows people / staff to practice the training they have received for emergency response

Informing People The most important part of a response, if the community is likely to be adversely affected

response the golden hour
Response – The ‘Golden Hour’

The time after an incident when:

“the most good can be done for the most people”

The initial response to an emergency aims to deal principally with the immediate effects.

Rapid implementation of arrangements for collaboration, co-ordination, but mainly communication is vital.

Initial Response

Notification - How?

Lead Agency - Which one?

Reporting – Survey

Acronym Assess






Emergency Services

Type of Incident

command and control
Command and Control

Operational Response at the scene

Tactical Co-ordination of the response

Strategic Formulate strategy for response and recovery

the problems operational level
The Problems – Operational Level

Verification and declaration of a major incident

Communications (Forward Incident Control Point)

Rescue, evacuation and accounting for casualties

Maintenance of the scene (possibly a crime scene)

Comfort facilities

Handling on-scene enquiries

Media – establish a Forward Media Liaison Point (FMLP)

Unofficial Helpers / Volunteers


the problems tactical level
The Problems – Tactical Level

Determine the allocation of available resources

Communications ( Lead agency covering the media)

Logistical support - shift changes - comfort facilities

- meals – transport - equipment

Reconciling casualty lists

Reception of N-O-K and bereaved relatives

Registration of death

Psychological support

Co-ordinating volunteer organisations (Local Authority)

Records/Logs and minutes of meetings

the problems strategic level
The Problems – Strategic Level

Overall strategy and policy for response and recovery

Media strategy and response

Community support

Business as usual

Identify resource requirements – mutual aid

Finance (for response, recovery and compensation)

Recovery – establish, agree and confirm the way ahead

Liaison with Central Government

Records/Logs and minutes of meetings

recovery return to normality
Recovery – Return to Normality

Recovery addresses the human, physical, environmental and economic impact of emergencies.

It is not something you get around to after the response, it must start at the same time.

It requires the co-operation of all organisations but most importantly the community.

“Community Solutions to Community Problems”

particular difficulties
Particular Difficulties





Single interest groups (e.g. Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, Wildlife Groups)

Health and Safety


Records – logs, memos, minutes

Enquiries (e.g. Public, Judicial, Fatal Accident Inquiries)


“Structures need to evolve to meet local circumstances …”

(Scottish Executive Justice Department, (2001), Dealing with Disasters Together

“Never plan in isolation”

The Society of Industrial Emergency Services Officers, (196), Guide to Emergency Planning


“The financial side of recovery is one that is very often left until the post-disaster period and then tackled using ad hoc methods.

A more provident and efficient approach would be to ask some “what if …?” questions before disaster strikes…”

Alexander D., (2002): Principles of Emergency Planning Management


“Failing to Plan is Planning to Fail”