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Civil Contingencies Planning from a Shetland Perspective. John Taylor Emergency Planning Officer Shetland Islands Council. Motor Tanker “Braer”. Civil Defence to Civil Protection Civil Defence Act 1948 to Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (Contingency Planning)(Scotland) Regulations 2005.
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Emergency Planning Officer
Shetland Islands Council
Civil Defence Act 1948
Civil Contingencies Act 2004
(Contingency Planning)(Scotland) Regulations 2005
30/12/78 – ss “Esso Bernicia” loss,174 tons heavy fuel & damage to jetties
31/07/79 – BAe 748 Aircraft, didn’t get airborne, 17 dead
06/11/86 – Chinook Helicopter, crashed into the sea, 45 dead
25/07/90 – Sikorsky Helicopter struck Brent Spar platform, 6 dead
01/01/92 – Extreme severe weather, 2 dead
14/03/92 – Super Puma crashed into sea off Cormorant Alpha, 11 dead
05/01/93 – mt “Braer”, total loss of vessel, no loss of life but 85,000 tons of oil
29/07 – 09/08/93 – Klondyker “Chernomorskaya Slava” Fire onboard
09/11/93 – Klondyker “Lunakhods” – 60 rescued by helicopter in extreme weather
17/11/93 – Klondyker “Borodinskoye Polye” – 155 rescued by lifeboat & helicopter
25/08/94 – Klondyker “Seda” Fire onboard during oil spill response exercise
31/10/94 – Klondyker “Pionersk” 156 rescued, fuel oil & 12 tons ammonia in the sea
07/11/94 – Klondyker “Vagula” lifeboat capsized, 17 rescued, 1 dead
20/05/97 – Air Ambulance Crash, 1 dead, 1 severely injured & 1 with no injuries
19/11/97 – Freighter “Green Lily”, severe weather, 15 rescued, winchman lost but later recovered dead
19/09/03 – 8 miles of multiple landslides & flooding, roads blocked & washed away, no injuries
08/01/07 – Acetylene cylinder fire in Lerwick, offices, restaurants, shops and flats evacuated for 24 hours
“An event or situation that threatens serious damage
to human welfare in a place in the UK, or
to the environment of a public place in the UK, or
war or terrorism which threatens serious damage to the security of the UK.”
To constitute an emergency this event or situation must require the implementation of special arrangements by one or more Category 1 responder.
Represents Shetland Emergency Planning Forum Executive
Represents full Shetland Emergency Planning Forum
Duties under the Act:
All elements of “Integrated Emergency Management”
An approach to prevention and managing emergencies,
with five key activities:
Risk assessment is the first step in the process
Community Risk Register (CRR)
Dynamic risk assessment is also an important activity during the response phase of an incident. Secondary hazards, risk reduction and health and safety must not be forgotten because we are responding to an emergency
What if? Seeks to identify risks, hazards & threats
What then? The likelihood and impact (consequences) of events are assessed
So what? Evaluates the significance of the risks and their relevance to the local area
Then what? Take steps to manage the risks
Values are assigned to each hazard depending on the community for which the register is being prepared.
Two elements – Likelihood x Impact
The measures to be taken to eliminate, isolate or reduce identified risks as far as reasonably practicable
Annual Flu Vaccinations
Booming for Pollution Control
Planning Must take place at all levels within a community to provide the basis for an integrated response
Training People / staff must be trained so they know what is expected of them
Exercising Allows people / staff to practice the training they have received for emergency response
Informing People The most important part of a response, if the community is likely to be adversely affected
The time after an incident when:
“the most good can be done for the most people”
The initial response to an emergency aims to deal principally with the immediate effects.
Rapid implementation of arrangements for collaboration, co-ordination, but mainly communication is vital.
Notification - How?
Lead Agency - Which one?
Reporting – Survey
Type of Incident
Operational Response at the scene
Tactical Co-ordination of the response
Strategic Formulate strategy for response and recovery
Verification and declaration of a major incident
Communications (Forward Incident Control Point)
Rescue, evacuation and accounting for casualties
Maintenance of the scene (possibly a crime scene)
Handling on-scene enquiries
Media – establish a Forward Media Liaison Point (FMLP)
Unofficial Helpers / Volunteers
Determine the allocation of available resources
Communications ( Lead agency covering the media)
Logistical support - shift changes - comfort facilities
- meals – transport - equipment
Reconciling casualty lists
Reception of N-O-K and bereaved relatives
Registration of death
Co-ordinating volunteer organisations (Local Authority)
Records/Logs and minutes of meetings
Overall strategy and policy for response and recovery
Media strategy and response
Business as usual
Identify resource requirements – mutual aid
Finance (for response, recovery and compensation)
Recovery – establish, agree and confirm the way ahead
Liaison with Central Government
Records/Logs and minutes of meetings
Recovery addresses the human, physical, environmental and economic impact of emergencies.
It is not something you get around to after the response, it must start at the same time.
It requires the co-operation of all organisations but most importantly the community.
“Community Solutions to Community Problems”
Single interest groups (e.g. Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, Wildlife Groups)
Health and Safety
Records – logs, memos, minutes
Enquiries (e.g. Public, Judicial, Fatal Accident Inquiries)
“Structures need to evolve to meet local circumstances …”
(Scottish Executive Justice Department, (2001), Dealing with Disasters Together
“Never plan in isolation”
The Society of Industrial Emergency Services Officers, (196), Guide to Emergency Planning
“The financial side of recovery is one that is very often left until the post-disaster period and then tackled using ad hoc methods.
A more provident and efficient approach would be to ask some “what if …?” questions before disaster strikes…”
Alexander D., (2002): Principles of Emergency Planning Management
“Failing to Plan is Planning to Fail”
IN OUR LOCAL MARITIME RESCUE SERVICE!