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“The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled.” – Plutarch, On Listening to Lectures. Understanding Depth of Knowledge (DOK) for Use in Creating Classroom Assessments.

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“The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled.”

– Plutarch, On Listening to Lectures

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Understanding Depth of Knowledge (DOK) for Use in Creating Classroom Assessments

Presented by

Rita Geiger, Educational Consultant

Eugene Earsom, OKAGE Program Director

Kelly Curtright, Director, Social Studies, OSDE

just what really is depth of knowledge
Just What Really is “Depth of Knowledge”?

Depth of Knowledge (DOK) is a scale of cognitive demand.

why dok is important
Why DOK IS Important!

Teachers of all subjects at all grade levels need to understand all DOK levels.

why dok is important1
Why DOK IS Important!

The range of cognitive demand for objectives within each grade spans from DOK 1 to DOK 4.

No items written at DOK 4 will appear on the World Geography CRT.

why dok is important2
Why DOK IS Important!

Instruction, assignments, and classroom assessments must incorporate the expectation of rigor for students associated with the DOK levels of all standards and objectives for World Geography.

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Depth of Knowledge

Level 1 Recall

Recall of a fact, information, or procedure.

Level 2 Skill/Concept

Use information or conceptual knowledge, two or more steps, etc.

Level 3 Strategic Thinking

Requires reasoning, developing a plan or a sequence of steps, some complexity, more than one possible answer.

Level 4 Extended Thinking

Requires an investigation, time to think and process multiple conditions of the problem.

beginning at the beginning
Beginning at the Beginning:

What DOK is can best be explained by saying first what DOK is NOT.

DOK is not a verb.

DOK is not about the “difficulty” of the task.

DOK is not a grade-level indicator.

dok is not a verb
DOK is Not a Verb

Describe . . .

how many apples you see in the picture.

the process of photosynthesis.

how the two political parties are alike.

your analysis of the literary elements in Snow Falling on Cedars as the novel reflected the effect of WWII on America.

dok is about what follows the verb
DOK is About What Follows the Verb

What comes after the verb is more important than the verb itself.

“Analyze this sentence to decide if the commas have been used correctly” does not meet the criteria for high cognitive processing.

Rationale: The student who has been taught the rule for using commas is merely using the rule.

dok is not about difficulty
DOK is NOT About Difficulty

Who was the 16th president of the United States?

If all of you know the answer, this question is an easy question.

Who was the 14th president of the United States?

If most of you do not know the answer, this question is a difficult question.

dok is not about difficulty1
DOK is NOT About Difficulty

What is the capital of the Iraq?

If all of you know the answer, this question is an easy question.

What is the capital of the Guyana?

If most of you do not know the answer, this question is a difficult question.

dok is about intended outcome not difficulty
DOK is About Intended Outcome, NOT Difficulty!

DOK is a reference to the complexity of mental processing that must occur to answer a question, perform a task, or generate a product.

dok is about complexity
DOK ISAbout Complexity

Every standard in Geography PASS has a DOK level.

Instruction and classroom assessments should reflect the DOK level of the objective.

when assigning the dok level consider
When Assigning the DOK Level, Consider . . .
  • the level of work students are most commonly required to perform.
  • the complexity of the task, rather than its difficulty.

The DOK level describes the kind of thinking involved in a task, not the likelihood that the task will be completed correctly.

what does dok look like in the classroom
What Does DOK Look Like in the Classroom?

Level One (Recall) – Name the presidents of the United States in order.

what does dok look like in the classroom1
What Does DOK Look Like in the Classroom?

Level Two (Skill/Concept) – Using the right and left political spectrum categorize the presidents of the 20th and 21st centuries according to their political standing.

what does dok look like in the classroom2
What Does DOK Look Like in the Classroom?

Level Three (Strategic Thinking) – Hypothesize how President Dwight D. Eisenhower would react to today’s political situation.

what does dok look like in the classroom3
What Does DOK Look Like in the Classroom?

Level Four (Extended Thinking) - Analyze the strategies and effectiveness of George H. W. Bush’s war strategies in the Persian Gulf with the war strategies of George W. Bush in Iraq.

what does dok look like in the classroom4
What Does DOK Look Like in the Classroom?

Level One (Recall) – Name two crops commonly grown in Argentina.

what does dok look like in the classroom5
What Does DOK Look Like in the Classroom?

Level Two (Skill/Concept) – Make a graph showing the annual production of the four largest crops grown in Argentina.

what does dok look like in the classroom6
What Does DOK Look Like in the Classroom?

Level Three (Strategic Thinking) – Develop a logical argument for planting a particular crop in the Pampas of Argentina, taking into account soils, weather, and other variables.

what does dok look like in the classroom7
What Does DOK Look Like in the Classroom?

Level Four (Extended Thinking) –

Design a three year crop rotation system for an estancia of 500 hectares, using as little chemical fertilizer as possible. Justify your system. Project the expected costs and revenues.

level 1 recall of information
Level 1 - Recall of Information

Recall facts, terms, concepts, and trends or recognize or identify specific information contained in graphics.

level 1 recall of information1
Level 1 - Recall of Information

Requires students to identify, list, or define.

level 1 recall of information2
Level 1 - Recall of Information

Recall who, what, when, and where.

level 1 recall of information3
Level 1 - Recall of Information

Recognize or identify specific information contained in documents, excerpts, quotations, maps, charts, tables, graphs, or illustrations.

level 2 basic reasoning
Level 2 - Basic Reasoning

Engagement of some mental processing beyond recalling or reproducing a response.

level 2 basic reasoning1
Level 2 - Basic Reasoning

Requires students to contrast or compare people, places, events, and concepts.

level 2 basic reasoning2
Level 2 - Basic Reasoning

Convert information from one form to another.

level 2 basic reasoning3
Level 2 - Basic Reasoning

Classify or sort items into meaningful categories.

level 2 basic reasoning4
Level 2 - Basic Reasoning

Draw simple conclusions.

level 2 basic reasoning5
Level 2 - Basic Reasoning

Describe, interpret, or explain issues and problems, patterns, reasons, cause and effect, significance or impact, relationships, points of view, or processes.

level 2 basic reasoning6
Level 2 - Basic Reasoning

A Level 2 “describe and/or explain” would require students to go beyond a description or explanation of recalled information to describe and/or explain a result or “how” or “why.”

level 3 complex reasoning
Level 3 - Complex Reasoning

Requires reasoning, using evidence, and a higher level of thinking than Level 1 and Level 2.

level 3 complex reasoning1
Level 3 - Complex Reasoning

Draw conclusions from multiple or complex stimuli.

level 3 complex reasoning2
Level 3 - Complex Reasoning

Use concepts to solve problems.

level 3 complex reasoning3
Level 3 - Complex Reasoning

Analyze similarities and differences.

level 3 complex reasoning4
Level 3 - Complex Reasoning

Evaluate solutions to problems.

level 3 complex reasoning5
Level 3 - Complex Reasoning

Recognize and explain misconceptions.

level 3 complex reasoning6
Level 3 - Complex Reasoning

Make connections across time and place to explain a concept or “big idea.”

level 3 complex reasoning7
Level 3 - Complex Reasoning

Analyze and synthesize information from multiple sources.

level 3 complex reasoning8
Level 3 - Complex Reasoning

Make predictions with evidence as support.

overview of item specifications
OVERVIEW OF ITEM SPECIFICATIONS

For each PASS standard, item specifications are organized under the following headings:

PASS Standard and PASS Objective

Item Specifications

a. Emphasis

b. Stimulus Attributes

c. Format

d. Content Limits

e. Distractor Domain

f. Sample Test Items

general considerations for item writing
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING

Use the Item Specifications to help create items for your classroom assessments.

general considerations for item writing1
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING

Use the language and terms from the Grade 5 Social Studies PASS both for instruction and assessment.

general considerations for item writing2
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • Test items are varied and address all PASS standards and objectives in Grade 5 Social Studies.
general considerations for item writing3
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • As much as possible, no item or response choice clues the answer to any other item.

Example:

What term describes the two times during the year when the hours of daylight

and darkness in a day are nearly equal?

(Equinox)

general considerations for item writing4
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • Test items are tied closely and particularly to the stimuli from which they derive, so that the impact of outside (prior) knowledge, while never wholly avoidable, is minimized.
general considerations for item writing5
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • Each multiple-choice item contains a question and four answer options, only one of which is correct. Correct answers are approximately equally distributed among As, Bs, Cs, and Ds.
general considerations for item writing6
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • The four choices are approximately the same length, have the same format, and are syntactically and semantically parallel; students should not be able to rule out a wrong answer or identify a correct response simply by virtue of its looking or sounding different.
general considerations for item writing7
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • Distractors adopt the language and sense of the material in the stimuli so that students must think their way to the correct answer rather than simply identify incorrect responses by virtue of a distractor’s obviously inappropriate nature.
general considerations for item writing8
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • Distractors should always be plausible (but, of course, incorrect) in the context of the stimulus.
general considerations for item writing9
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • Items are focused on what all children should know and be able to do as they exit Fifth Fifth Grade Social Studies.
general considerations for item writing10
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • Distractors are developed based on the types of errors students are most likely to make.
general considerations for item writing11
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • The responses “Both of the above,” “All of the above,” “None of the above,” and “Neither of the above” are not used.
general considerations for item writing12
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • The material presented is balanced, culturally diverse, well-written, and of interest to fifth grade students. The stimuli and items are presented fairly in order to gain a true picture of students’ skills.
general considerations for item writing13
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • All items are reviewed to eliminate language or implication that shows bias or is otherwise likely to disadvantage a particular group of students. That is, items do not display unfair representations of gender, race, ethnicity, disability, culture, or religion; nor do items contain elements that are offensive to any such groups.
general considerations for item writing14
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • Each item begins with a stem that asks a question or poses a clear problem.
general considerations for item writing15
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ITEM WRITING
  • Most stems are positively worded—avoiding the use of the word not. If a negative is required, the format is “All of the following . . . except . . . .”
stimulus materials
Stimulus Materials

At least 50% of the items have appropriate pictorial and graphical representations. Graphs, tables, or figures are clearly associated with their intended items.

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Web Sites

http://facstaff.wcer.wisc.edu/normw/

Alignment Tool

http://www.wcer.wisc.edu/WAT/index.aspx

Survey of the Enacted Curriculum

http://www.SECsurvey.org

contact information
Contact Information

Kelly Curtright

Eugene Earsom

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“If you want to be successful it’s just this simple. Know what you are doing. Love what you are doing. And believe in what you are doing.”

– Will Rogers

“If you want to be successful it’s just this simple. Know what you are doing. Love what you are doing. And believe in what you are doing.”

– Will Rogers

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