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Chapter 5 ─. Clarifying the Research Question through Secondary Data and Exploration. Donald R. Cooper & Pamela S. Schindle. 授課老師: 洪新原 教授 學 生: 602556006 李佩軒 602556016 高祺凱 602556022 劉逸寧. The purpose and process of exploratory research .

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clarifying the research question through secondary data and exploration

Chapter 5 ─

Clarifying the Research Question through Secondary Data and Exploration

Donald R. Cooper & Pamela S. Schindle

授課老師:洪新原 教授

學 生:602556006李佩軒

602556016高祺凱

602556022劉逸寧

2013/10/21 研究方法

learning objectives

The purpose and process of exploratory research.

The two types and three levels of management decision-related secondary sources.

The five types of external information and the factors for evaluating the value of a source and its content.

The process of using exploratory research to understand the management dilemma and work through the stages of analysis necessary to formulate the research question (and, ultimately, investigative questions and measurement questions).

What is involved in internal data mining and how internal data-mining techniques differ from literature searches.

2013/10/21 研究方法

Learning Objectives
5 1 a search strategy for exploratory

A Search Strategy for Exploratory

Levels of information

Types of information sources

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5.1 A Search Strategy for Exploratory
a search strategy for exploratory

Through exploration researchers develop concepts more clearly , establish priorities , develop operational definitions, and improve the final research design.

If the problem is not as first thought, more formal studies can be canceled.

The researcher may explore to be sure it is practical to do a formal study in the area.

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A Search Strategy for Exploratory
the exploratory phase search strategy
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  • Discovery and analysis of secondary sources
The Exploratory phase search strategy
  • Group discussions
  • Expert interviews
  • Individual depth interviews
  • (IDIs)
objectives of exploratory research phase

Expand your understanding of the management dilemma

Gather background information on your topic

Identify information that should be gathered

Identify sources for and actual question

Identify sources for and actual sample frames

2013/10/21 研究方法

Objectives of exploratory research phase
five steps of literature search
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Define management dilemma

Define management dilemma

Five steps of literature search

Consult books to identify key terms

Consult books to identify key terms

Apply these key terms in searching

Apply these key terms in searching

Locate and review specific secondary sources

Locate and review specific secondary sources

Evaluate the value of each source and its content.

Evaluate the value of each source and its content.

levels of information

Primary sources

    • Raw data without interpretation or pronouncements that represent an official opinion
    • Always the most authoritative
  • Secondary sources
    • Interpretations of primary data
  • Tertiary sources
    • May be interpretations of secondary source

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Levels of information
types of information source

Index and Bibliographies

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Types of information source
  • Directories
  • Dictionaries
  • Dictionaries
  • Encyclopedias
  • Handbooks
evaluating information sources

A researcher using secondary sources, especially if drawn from the Internet, will want to conduct a source evaluation.

  • There are five factor that can be applied to any type of source:
    • Purpose
    • Scope
    • Authority
    • Audience
    • Format

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Evaluating information sources
5 2 mining internal sources

Evolution of Data Mining

Data Mining Process

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5.2 Mining Internal Sources
slide16

The purpose of data mining is to identify valid, novel, useful, and ultimately understandable patterns in data.

A data warehouse is an electronic repository for databases that organizes large volumes of data into categories to facilitate retrieval, interpretation, and sorting by end users.

Data in data warehouse must be continually updated to ensure that managers have access to data appropriate for real-time decisions.

2013/10/21 研究方法

evolution of data mining

Data-mining software using

-Neural network

-Fuzzy logic

-Pattern Recognition

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Evolution of Data Mining
evoulution of data mining cont1

This technology provides two unique capabilities to the reasercher or manager:

-Pattern Discovery

e.g. MasterCard

-Predicting Trends and Behaviors

e.g. Bank of American & Mellon Bank

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Evoulution of Data Mining(cont.)
data mining process cont

Sample: the researcher must decide whether to use the entire data set or sample of the data.

Explore : visually and numerically for trends or groups . The researcher also looks for outliers.

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Data Mining Process(cont.)
data mining process cont1

Modify:a data reduction program, such as factor analysis 、correspondence analysis or clustering may be used.

Model: include neural networks as well as decision tree, sequence-based, classification and estimation and genetic-based models.

Assess: assess the model to estimate how well it performs.

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Data Mining Process(cont.)
5 3 the question hierarchy how ambiguous question become actionable research

5.3The Question Hierarchy:How Ambiguous QuestionBecomeActionable Research

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5 3 1 management question

WHAT IS MANAGEMENT QUESTION?

Management questions are the restatement of the management dilemma in question form.

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5.3.1 Management Question
5 3 1 management question2

Exploration

To move forward in the management-research question hierarchy and define the research question, we need to collect some exploratory information.

2013/10/21 研究方法

5.3.1 Management Question
5 3 2 research question s

Fine – Tuning(微調)

Fine-tuning the question is precisely what a skillful practitioner must do after the exploration is complete.

At this point, a clearer picture of the management and research questions begins to emerge.

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5.3.2Research Question(s)
5 3 2 research question s1

The researcher should address other research question-related activities in this phase to enhance the direction of project.

1.Examine variables

2.Evaluate hypothesis

3. Determine necessary evidence

4. Set scope of study

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5.3.2Research Question(s)
5 3 3 investigative question s

Develops major investigative questions and each question has several subquestions.

Example:

What is the public’s position regarding

financial services and their use?

What specific financial services are used?

How attractive are various services?

What bank-specific and environmental factors influence a person’s use of a particular service?

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5.3.3Investigative Question(s)
5 3 4 measurement question s

Measurement questions are the actual questions that researchers use to collect data in a study.

Two types of measurement questions arecommon in business research:

1.Predesigned measurement questions

2.Custom-designed measurement questions

此處僅簡短論述,更詳細的內容將於第十一章解說

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5.3.4Measurement Question(s)